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Full text of "Draft environmental statement : Silver City, Idaho"

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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



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DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 



DRAFT 
ENVIRONMENTAL STATEMENT 



SILVER CITY, IDAHO 



Prepared by 

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

IDAHO STATE OFFICE 




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State Director, Idaho State Office 



Bureaii of Land! Msnajement 

Library 
Denver Service Canter 



1 



SUMMARY 



( X ) Draft ( ) Final Environmental Statement 

Department of the Interior 
Bureau of Land Management 
Idaho State Office 

1. Type of Action : ( X ) Administrative ( ) Legislative 

2. Brief Description of Action : The Bureau of Land Management 
proposes to lease 5.5 acres of public lands within the regionally 
recognized historic site of Silver City, Idaho. Leases would be 
issued to the existing building owners to authorize their existing 
occupancy and use of public lands. The leases would contain 
stipulations (1) to preserve and protect historic and archaeologi- 
cal resources, (2) to protect the natural resources, and (3) to 
protect public health and safety. 

3. Summary of Environmental Impacts and Adverse Environmental 
Effects : The proposed lease would help protect the historic 
buildings from historically inaccurate alterations. Impacts to 
the archaeological resource would be lessened on the 5.5 acres by 
controlling or reducing both artifact and bottle collecting and 
excavation in connection with occupancy and removal of ruins. 
There would be no impact to mining nor any change in grazing 
activities. Compliance with the lease would require a short-term 
increase in maintenance and construction activities. Localized 
soil, vegetation, and wildlife disturbance would occur. Long-term 
impacts to grazing, vegetation, soils, and wildlife and fishery 
would be negligible. 

Although the proposed lease authorizes the building owners to 
occupy public land, the building owners may not feel secure with 
the lease. Public health and safety would improve from the cor- 
rection of deficiencies in the sewage disposal and water systems. 

4. Alternatives Considered : (1) no action; (2) sale of public 
land to building owners; (3) sale of public land to nonprofit 
organizations; (4) lease of public land to nonprofit organizations; 

(5) total federal acquisition of all buildings and lease to seller; 

(6) federal acquisition of four historic buildings and lease 
public land to remaining building owners; (7) special legislative 
alternative, trustee townsite. 

5. Comments Have Been Requested From The Following : Attached is 
a list of federal, state and nongovernmental agencies with juris- 
diction and expertise which would receive copies of the draft 
statement. 

6. Date Statement Made Available to CEQ and the Public : 

Draft: 
Final: 



ATTACHMENT 

COORDINATION IN THE REVIEW OF THE DRAFT ES 

Comments on the draft environmental statement are requested from 
the following agencies, interest groups and individuals: 

Federal 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 
Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service 

Soil Conservation Service 
Department of Commerce 

Department of Health, Education and Welfare 
Department of Housing and Urban Development 
Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Reclamation 

Fish and Wildlife Service 

Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service 

National Park Service 
Environmental Protection Agency 



State 



State of Idaho 

Governor's Clearinghouse 



Local 

Owyhee County Commissioners 

Ida-Ore Regional Planning and Development Association 

Nongovernmental Organizations 

Ada County Fish and Game League 

American Association of University Women 

Associated Taxpayers of Idaho 

Audubon Society 

Boise Riding Club 

Boise State University 

Capital Conservation Club 

Citizens Alliance 

Coalition to Save the Snake 

Energy Daily 

Friends of the Earth 

Gem State 4-Wheel Drive 

Greater Snake River Land Use Congress 



ATTACHMENT (continued) 

Idaho Environmental Council 
Idaho Water Users Association 
Idaho Conservation League 

Idaho Association of Soil Conservation Districts 
Idaho Forest Council 
Idaho Forestry Association 
Idaho Wildlife Federation 
Idaho Fish and Game Association 
Idaho Gem Club 
Idaho Outdoor Association 
Idaho Mining Association 
Idaho Archaeological Society- 
Idaho State Federation of Garden Clubs 
Idaho League of Women Voters 
Idaho State University 

Mt. Home Air Force Base Sportsman Club 
Nature Conservancy 
National Wildlife Federation 
Nampa Rod and Gun Club 
Offroad Motorcylists Council 
Oregon High Desert Study Group 
Outdoors Unlimited 
Owyhee Motorcycle Club 
Sierra Club 

Snake River Conservation Research Center 
Society of American Foresters 
Twin Falls Fish and Game Club 
Wildlife Resources 
Wildlife Society 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION - CHAPTER 1 

Introduction 1-1 

Proposed Action 1-2 

Objectives 1-3 

Components of the Proposed Action 1-3 

General Provisions 1-5 

Protection and Preservation of 

Archaeological Resources 1-5 

Protection and Preservation of 

Historic Resources 1-6 

Protection of the Natural 

Environment 1-8 

Failure to Apply or Accept a Lease 1-9 

Authority for Proposed Action 1-10 

Federal Action Necessary for Initiation 

of Proposed Action 1-10 

Compliance with Terms of the Lease 1-11 

Interrelationships with the Bureau 

Planning System 1-11 

Interrelationships with Other Federal, 

State, and Local Agencies 1-13 

National Park Service 1-14 

State of Idaho 1-15 

Owyhee County 1-16 

DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT - CHAPTER 2 

Introduction 2-1 

General 2-1 

Historic Setting and Significance 2-4 

Description of the Silver City Study Area 2-25 

Cultural Resources 2-27 

Historic Buildings 2-27 

Historic Preservation Funds 2-42 

Alteration of Historic Buildings 2-43 

Historic Archaeology 2-53 

Land Use 2-54 

Grazing 2-54 

Mining 2-55 

Recreation 2-59 

Aesthetics 2-62 

Visual Resource 2-62 

Noise 2-63 

Soil 2-63 



Vegetation 2-64 

Area I - Mountain Mahagony/Juniper 2-65 

Area II - Creek Bottoms 2-65 

Area III - Protected Areas 2-65 

Area IV - Mountain Shrub 2-66 

Area V - Vegetation Within Town 

Boundaries . , 2-66 

Area VI - Conifer/Aspen 2-66 

Threatened or Endangered Plants 2-67 

Wildlife and Fishery 2-69 

Wildlife 2-69 

Fishery 2-70 

Socio-Economics Characteristics . 2-71 

Owyhee County 2-71 

Silver City 2-76 

Description of the Future Envorinment 

Without the Proposed Action 2-86 

Cultural Resources 2-86 

Land Use 2-87 

Livestock Grazing 2-87 

Mining 2-87 

Recreation 2-88 

Aesthetics 2-89 

Soils 2-89 

Vegetation 2-89 

Wildlife and Fishery 2-90 

Wildlife 2-90 

Fishery 2-90 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 2-90 

Owyhee County 2-90 

Silver City 2-91 

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION - CHAPTER 3 

Introduction 3-1 

Assumptions and Analysis Guidelines 3-1 

Impact Analysis 3-3 

Cultural Resource 3-3 

Historic Buildings 3-3 

Historic Archaeology 3-3 

Land Use 3-4 

Grazing 3-4 

Mining 3-4 

Recreation 3-5 

Aesthetics 3-5 

Soil 3-6 

Vegetation 3-6 

Wildlife and Fishery 3-7 

Wildlife 3-7 

Fishery 3-8 



li 



Socio-Economic Characteristics 3-8 

Community Characteristics 3-8 

Social Attitudes and Values 3-9 

Service Systems 3-10 

MITIGATION MEASURES - CHAPTER 4 

UNAVOIDABLE ADVERSE IMPACTS - CHAPTER 5 

Impact Analysis 5_1 

Cultural Resource 5-1 

Archaeology 5_X 

Land Use 5_1 

Recreation 5_1 

Aesthetics 5_2 

Vegetation 5_2 

Wildlife 5_2 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 5-3 

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LOCAL SHORT TERM USES OF 

MAN'S ENVIRONMENT AND MAINTENANCE AND ENHANCEMENT 

OF LONG TERM PRODUCTIVITY - CHAPTER 6 

IRREVERSIBLE AND IRRETRIEVABLE COMMITMENT OF RESOURCES - CHAPTER 7 

ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION - CHAPTER 8 

Introduction 8-5 

Procedure 8-5 

Alternative 1 - No Action 8-5 

Alternative 2 - Sale of Public Land to 

Building Owners 8-7 

Alternative 3 - Sale of Public Land to 

Nonprofit Organizations 8-18 

Alternative 4 - Lease Public Land to 

Nonprofit Organizations 8-30 

Alternative 5 - Total Federal Acquisition 

of Buildings and Lease to Seller 8-44 

Alternative 6 - Federal Acquisition of Four 

Historic Buildings and Lease Public 

Land to Remaining Building Owners 8-56 

Alternative 7 - Special Legislative 

Alternative, Trustee Townsite for 

Silver City 8-70 

CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION - CHAPTER 9 

Introduction 9-1 

Organization of Team for 

Preparation of Draft ES 9-1 



in 



Consultation and Coordination 

in Preparation of the Draft ES 9-2 

Appendix A - Methodology Used in 

Estimating Lease Rental A-l 

Appendix B - Silver City Area 

Zoning Ordinance B ~l 

Appendix C - Silver City Buildings C-l 

Appendix D - Methodology Used in 

Assessing the Archaeological Resource D-l 

Glossary G-l 

References R~l 

TABLES 

2-1 Table of Primary Structures 2-30 

2-2 Building Alterations or Additions 2-44 

8-1 Summary of Anticipated Impacts 8-2 

FIGURES 

2-1 Silver City, May 1866 2-9 

2-2 Lithograph 2-9 

2-3 View Northward Across Silver City ca 1880s 2-11 

2-4 Looking Toward Long Gulch Creek 2-11 

2-5 A view of the "Queen" taken from a nearby 

mountain in November 1906 2-14 

2-6 Growth and Decline of Number of Buildings 

in Silver City 2-17 

2-7 Idaho Hotel, July 1869 2-21 

2-8 Grete Boarding House and Roger's 

Boarding House 2-22 

2-9 Silver Slipper Saloon, Getchell Drug 

Store and Granite Block 2-22 

2-10 A view of Washington Street 2-23 

2-11 1890s, A typical dwelling 2-23 

2-12 Catholic Church 2-24 

2-13 Stoddard House 2-24 

2-14 Masonic Hall 2-25 

2-15 Prebuilt Boise Cascade Home 2-28 

2-16 Roger's Boarding House 2-32 

2-17 Grete Boarding House 2-33 

2-18 IOOF Building 2-33 

2-19 Silver Slipper Saloon; Getchell Drug 2-34 

2-20 Idaho Hotel Annex 2-34 

2-21 Old County Offices 2-35 

2-22 Old Telephone Office 2-35 



IV 



2-23 Old Lippincott Building 2-36 

2-24 Hawes Bazaar 2-36 

2-25 Old Butcher Shop . . . . 2-37 

2-26 Old Furniture Store 2-37 

2-27 Masonic Temple 2-38 

2-28 Old General Store and Owyhee Avalanche 2-38 

2-29 Idaho Hotel 2-39 

2-30 Old Hotel Annex . 2-39 

2-31 School House 2-40 

2-32 Stoddard House 2-40 

2-33 Old Ice House 2-41 

2-34 Old Miners Hospital 2-41 

2-35 Catholic Church 2-42 

2-36 Categories of Intrusions 2-48 

2-37 Building depicting intrusions 2-49 

2-38 Building with Cement Block 

Chimney Intrusion 2-49 

2-39 Prefabricated Structure 2-50 

2-40 Propane Tank Intrusion 2-51 

2-41 Intrusive Addition and Outhouse Structure 2-52 

MAPS 

1-1 Silver City Proposed Leased Tracts 1-4 

2-1 Topography 2-3 

2-2 Silver City 1903 \ *2-13 

2-3 Silver City 1931 . . . . 2-15 

2-4 Silver City 1951 ' 2-16 

2-5 Silver City Historic District 2-20 

2-6 Silver City ES Study Area 2-26 

2-7 Silver City 1977 2-29 

2-8 Silver City 1977 - Historic and Architectural 

Significance of Silver City Buildings 2-31 

2-9 Mining 2-57 

2-10 Vegetative Types 2-68 

3-1 Silver City Proposed Leased Tracts 3-2 



8-1 Silver City - Alternative 1 8-6 

8-2 Silver City - Alternative 2 8-8 

8-3 Silver City - Alternative 3 8-19 

8-4 Silver City - Alternative 4 8-31 

8-5 Silver City - Alternative 5 8-45 

8-6 Silver City - Alternative 6 8-57 

8-7 Silver City - Alternative 7 8-72 



Chapter 1 

Description of the Proposed Action 



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SILVER SLIPPER 



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GRANITE BLOCK 






VICINITY MAP 



INTRODUCTION 

Silver City, a historic property listed on the National 
Register of Historic Places, was founded on public land after the 
1863 discovery of gold in the Owyhee Mountains of southwestern 
Idaho. It is located about 50 miles southwest of Boise. 

It began as a mining camp but soon evolved into a flourishing 
mining community. Silver City remained a viable community until 
about 1912 when the major mining companies closed. The last of 
the Silver City mines did not close until World War II, after 
which the town became an "authentic ghost town" (Wells, National 
Register of Historic Places Inventory 1971). It was during this 
period that many of the privately owned buildings were torn down 
or deteriorated into ruins. 

By the early 1950's, Silver City was occupied by a few build- 
ing owners on a seasonal basis. Today, Silver City is basically a 
summer residence for the private owners of the buildings still 
standing. However, some owners use the buildings while they work 
their cattle or mining claims. 

In 1972, the Boise District, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 
prepared the West Owyhee Unit Management Framework Plan (MFP) for 
the Silver City area. As a result, proposed land use decisions 
were made to retain the public lands in Silver City to resolve the 
unauthorized use and occupancy of these lands by the Silver City 



1-1 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

building owners to protect the cultural resources and to manage 
the recreation resource to provide a high quality recreation 
experience. 

The BLM proposes to lease public lands in Silver City to 
resolve the unauthorized use and occupancy problem identified in 
the MFP. This environmental statement addresses the proposed 
leasing action and alternatives. 

After the critical issue of unauthorized use and occupancy is 
resolved, the BLM will prepare a specific plan for the management 
of the recreation and the cultural resources. The general objec- 
tives of the plan will be (1) to protect and manage the cultural 
resource, and (2) to provide for a full range of high quality 
recreation opportunities in harmony with protection of all re- 
sources. This management plan will be subject to an environmental 
evaluation in accordance with the requirements of the National 
Environmental Policy Act of 1969. 

PROPOSED ACTION 

The BLM proposes to lease public lands, which are occupied by 
privately owned buildings within the historic area of Silver City, 
Idaho. Non-competitive leases would be issued to the existing 60 
Silver City building owners upon proof of building ownership. 
Proof of ownership would be established by tax records and convey- 
ance documents. This action would only authorize use and occu- 



1-2 



pancy of the surface estate, and would be subject to existing 
valid rights, including valid mining claims. 

This proposal would involve 70 tracts of public land within 
Silver City totaling approximately 5.5 acres (see Map 1-1). 

Objectives 

The objectives of the proposed action are to help preserve 
and protect a segment of a locally recognized historic site and to 
resolve the existing unauthorized occupancy of public lands within 
Silver City. 

Components of the Proposed Action 

Because each tract which is proposed for leasing must be 
addressed on an individual basis, specific lease agreements 
between BLM and Silver City owners have not been developed. To be 
responsive to the needs of the building owners as well as the 
different requirements of each proposed leased area, individual 
lease agreements will be prepared after the final environmental 
statement is completed in August 1978 if the lease program is 
adopted by BLM. 

The provisions contained in this chapter would serve as a 
guide in drafting the individual leases. Individual leases have 
not been prepared. Specific lease stipulations will be prepared 
for each leased tract. The proposed leases would contain the 
following: (1) general provisions; (2) provisions to preserve and 
protect archaeological resource; (3) provisions to preserve and 



1-3 




PROPOSED LEASED TRACTS 
MAP NO. 1-1 



1-4 



protect the historic resource; (4) provisions to protect public 
health and safety; and (5) provisions to protect the natural 
environment . 

General Provisions . 

Term . All leases would be issued for a period of 20 years. 

Renewal . If it is determined by BLM that the use should 
continue to be authorized, it will be reissued. However, leases 
will not be automatically renewable. 

Transfers . Leases may be transferred in whole or in part 
under the following conditions: (1) The transferee must be quali- 
fied to hold a lease; (2) the BLM may modify the terms and condi- 
tions of the lease. 

Termination or Suspension . Under the authority of Section 
302(c) of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act, BLM may 
terminate or suspend a lease for the following reasons: (1) 
noncompliance with applicable statutes, regulations, terms and 
conditions of the lease; (2) failure of the holder to use the 
lease for the purpose for which it was granted; and (3) mutual 
agreement that the lease should be terminated. 

Rental . Rental will be based upon the fair market value of 
the rights authorized in the lease. A preliminary estimate of the 
rental has been determined (see Appendix A) . 

Protection and Preservation of the Archaeological Resource . All 
surface disturbing activities on the proposed lease area (gardens, 



1-5 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

i 
access roads, utility lines, water systems, etc.) must have prior 
approval by BLM. 

Archaeological artifacts and/or features found in the course 
of authorized surface disturbance are the property of the U.S. 
Government. If any historic or prehistoric artifacts or features 
are discovered as a result of surface disturbance, these .discov- 
eries must be left intact and the BLM notified immediately. 
Protection and Preservation of the Historic Resource . The build- 
ing owners must obtain prior approval by BLM to: (1) erect new 
buildings or other structures; (2) alter, maintain, or repair 
existing buildings or structures when these alterations, mainten- 
ance, or repairs would change the exterior appearance of the 
buildings or structures; (3) erect signs, exhibits, and interpre- 
tive devices; and (4) demolish, move, or remove buildings or other 
structures. The Secretary of the Interior's "Standard for Rehabil- 
itation" and the advice of the Owyhee County Historic Advisory 
Committee will provide BLM with the standards and guidelines for 
acceptable alterations and new construction. The buildings and 
other privately owned structures will be maintained by the build- 
ing owners. No maintenance or repair will be provided by the BLM. 
Neither will the BLM provide utilities, equipment, nor services. 
Protection of the Public Health and Safety . The Southwest Dis- 
trict Health Department (SDHD) of Idaho has the responsibility to 
enforce state and county laws and regulations that pertain to 
public health and safety. Under the Federal Land Policy and 



1-6 



Management Act (FLPMA) Section 302 (c) , BLM has the responsibility 
to protect public health or safety. To meet BLM's responsibili- 
ties, the following provisions will be required to insure comp- 
liance with state and county health laws and regulations. 

Individual Sewage Disposal System . Any individual sewage 
disposal system is subject to inspection by the SDHD to ascertain 
if it meets the requirements of the state and county health laws 
and ordinances. If the system is found to be substandard and the 
person or organization owning the structure served by such a 
system did not comply with the requirements of SDHD, the building 
affected by or served by such sewage system would be deemed unfit 
for human habitation and vacated until such deficiency is remedied. 

Domestic Water Supply System . All water supply systems would 
be subject to inspection by the SDHD to ascertain whether or not 
such water supply systems meet the requirements of the state and 
county health laws and ordinances. In the event the existing 
system is found by the SDHD to be substandard, the water supply 
system would not be allowed for domestic purposes until the defi- 
ciency is remedied. 

Written Permission for Alteration or Construction of Water 

Supply and Sewage Disposal Systems . Any new construction, 
reconstruction, or alteration of existing or proposed domestic 
water supply or sewage disposal systems would require prior writ- 
ten permission from the BLM. Permission would be given only after 
the BLM (1) receives written notification from the SDHS that the 
plans and specifications for the proposed system comply with the 



1-7 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

requirements of the state and county health laws and ordinances, 
and (2) receives a determination that no historic and prehistoric 
artifacts and features would be unnecessarily impacted by the 
proposed action and that those impacts would be properly mitigated. 

Inspection . Inspection will be made by the SDHD. to assure 
that new construction or reconstruction of such systems and facil- 
ities as may be built, rebuilt, or installed comply with approved 
plans. The BLM will inspect the construction site to assure 
protection of the historic and prehistoric artifacts and features. 

Disposal of Refuse . The building owner would dispose of 
refuse as required by the BLM. Disposal would comply with appli- 
cable federal and state laws and regulations. 

Regulations Governing Commercial Establishments . No commer- 
cial eating, drinking, or other establishment may be operated on 
leased areas unless approved by the BLM. 

The BLM would issue written permission only after an inspec- 
tion by the SDHD of the eating or drinking premises to be licensed 
and written notice that the premises complies with the require- 
ments of the state and county health laws and ordinances. All 
commercial enterprises would comply with specific requirements of 
BLM. 
Protection of the Natural Environment 

Fire Prevention . The building owners would be required to 
take all reasonable precautions to prevent forest, brush, grass, 



1-8 



and structural fires. They would also be required to install fire 
prevention equipment and take other preventive measures as deter- 
mined by BLM. 

Explosives . The use of explosives must be authorized by the 
BLM. 

Special Events . Sports events, pageants, reenactments, 
entertainments, and the like, characterized as a public spectator 
attraction, and annual conventions, must be authorized by the BLM. 
Such permits must be consistent with the purposes for which the 
area is established and maintained and would cause the minimum 
possible interference with other public use of the area. The 
permit would contain terms and conditions concerning time and 
place to protect the environment, public health and safety. 

The BLM may require the filing of a bond to cover costs of 
restoration and cleanup. 

Portable Engines and Motors . The operation or use of a 
motor-driven electric generating plant or gas-powered appliances 
utilizing an externally mounted propane tank would be in accord- 
ance with plans approved by BLM. 

Valid Rights . The leases are subject to existing rights, 
including valid mining claims. 

Failure to Apply or Accept a Lease . Silver City building owners 
not signing a lease contract would be subject to trespass action. 



1-9 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 



AUTHORITY FOR PROPOSED ACTION 

Under Section 302 of the Federal Land Policy and Management 
Act, the Secretary of the Interior is authorized to regulate the 
use, occupancy, and development of the public land through lease. 
The BLM, the administering agency, will represent the Secretary in 
dealing with the building owners. 



FEDERAL ACTION NECESSARY FOR INITIATION 
OF PROPOSED ACTION 



Prior to the issuance of the proposed leases, the following 
actions must be taken: (1) completion of this environmental state- 
ment in accordance with the requirements of the National Environ- 
mental Policy Act of 1969; (2) compliance with Section 106 of the 
National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 after completing the 
environmental statement but prior to making a decision to lease; 
(3) the Secretary of the Interior or his authorized representative 
must make the decision to initiate the leasing action. This 
decision is subject to a 30-day administrative review during which 
comments may be filed. If adverse comments are filed, the land 
use decision may be either vacated, affirmed, or modified. 



1-10 



COMPLIANCE WITH TERMS OF THE LEASE 

The BLM, Boise District, will actively monitor the leases to 
insure compliance with the terms, conditions, and stipulations and 
applicable laws and regulations. The Southwest District Health 
Department of Idaho has the responsibility to enforce state and 
county laws and regulations that pertain to public health and 
safety. The Owyhee County Commissioners have the responsibility 
to insure compliance with their Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance. 



INTERRELATIONSHIPS 
WITH THE BUREAU PLANNING SYSTEM 



In 1972 and 1973, Boise District BLM began writing the Unit 
Resource Analysis (URA) and Management Framework Plan (MFP) for 
the West Owyhee Planning Unit which included Silver City. As part 
of this planning effort, the BLM intended to preserve the historic 
character of Silver City for the public and building owners. An 
interdisciplinary study team was formed to investigate just the 
recreation-historic resources. The seven-man team was made up of 
historic, recreation, minerals, landscape architect, and engineer- 
ing specialists. They were to identify opportunities for recrea- 
tion and historic resources enhancement (Step IV URA) and make 
management recommendations (Step I MFP). The team finished the 
Silver City Study Report in January 1973. 



1-11 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

To include local interests and building owners in the BLM 
planning process, a 20-person ad hoc committee was formed in 
February 1973. The committee's purpose was to assist the BLM in 
reaching proper management decisions for Silver City during the 
MFP Step II formulation. Seven sessions were held between Feb- 
ruary and November of 1973. In April 1974, a public meeting was 
held at the Owyheee County Courthouse to explain the BLM position 
on Silver City and the committee function. The committee acknowl- 
edged that management of Silver City must protect historic values 
and architecture, that commercialization should be prevented, 
visitors should be tolerated and accommodated to some degree, and 
certain public services, such as water and sewage should be 
improved. 

The State Historic Society submitted a plan in April 1973. 
It envisioned a combined preservation and management effort be- 
tween building owners, BLM, State Parks Department, a county 
historic zoning provision, and an architectural review board to 
authorize building repairs or modifications. 

During the same period that the committee meetings were held, 
the Silver City Taxpayers Association (about one-half of the 
Silver City building owners), formulated their own plan. Meetings 
were held with the BLM and a draft plan was submitted in mid- 
summer. After the plan was analyzed by the BLM, and certain 
changes recommended, a second draft was submitted in October 1974. 
On October 25, 1974, the committee was reconvened to review this 
final proposal. 



1-12 



On March 26, 1975, the BLM held a public meeting in Murphy 
with the homeowners to discuss alternative means of legalizing 
their occupancy. The MFP was completed in 1975, and sent for 
approval to BLM Idaho State Director in August 1976. After 
considering public opinion and several management opportunities, 
the BLM recommendation was to lease, with stipulations to protect 
the buildings and archaeological resources, public lands to the 
building owners. 

Subsequent to the passage of FLPMA in 1976, the BLM updated 
the MFP to revise portions affected by repealed laws. Consequent- 
ly, the following alternatives were dropped from consideration 
because FLPMA repealed their authority: (1) Small Tract Act, (2) 
Trustee Townsite*, and (3) Special Land Use Permit. 



INTERRELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER FEDERAL, STATE 

AND LOCAL AGENCIES 



The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 

The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 created the 
Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, an independent agency 
of the Executive Branch of the Federal Government, to advise the 
President and Congress on matters involving historic preservation, 

^Trustee Townsite is discussed in Chapter 8 - Alternatives, as a 
special legislative alternative. 



1-13 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

Section 106 of the Act requires Federal agencies to give the 
Council a reasonable opportunity to comment on any Federal action 
that may affect properties included in the National Register of 
Historic Places. 

This Act is implemented in cooperation with the State His- 
toric Preservation Office (SHPO), who has the responsibility for 
administering the National Register program within its jurisdic- 
tion, and the Idaho Historical Society. The SHPO has the follow- 
ing specific roles relative to the BLM cultural resource manage- 
ment program: (1) to review and comment on all National Register 
nominations; (2) to review and comment in regards to Section 106 
of the National Historic Preservation Act compliance requirements; 
and (3) to provide the BLM an opportunity to comment upon National 
Register nominations prepared by the SHPO for properties on Bureau- 
administered lands. 

National Park Service 

The National Park Service (NPS) inventoried Silver City in 
1958 as part of a national survey of historic sites and buildings. 
Silver City was surveyed to determine its historic value for 
possible listing as a National Historic Landmark. The NPS con- 
cluded that the old mining community was of local and regional 
importance but lacked national significance required for desig- 
nation as a National Historic Landmark, National Monument, or 
National Park. 



1-14 



In 1972, Silver City was placed on the National Register of 
Historic Places, administered by the National Park Service, as 
part of a historic district. It must be noted that there is an 
important difference between a listing on the National Register 
and sites of national significance. The local and regional desig- 
nation of the historic district is considered appropriate by the 
National Park Service (USDI, 1978). 

State of Idaho 

Idaho State jurisdiction of Silver City has been considered 
from time to time. In 1968, the State and BLM discussed state 
management of Silver City for preserving, promoting, and restoring 
its historic values. Although the Idaho Historical Society pro- 
posed to develop a preservation plan to provide for title or lease 
under the authority of the Historic Monument Act (Federal Property 
and Administrative Services Act of 1949, 63 Stat. 377, as amended), 
Federal Regulations (41 CFR, Chapter 101) exclude public domain or 
public lands, suitable for disposition under the public land 
mining laws, from disposal as surplus real property. Since spe- 
cific legislation would be necessary to adopt this program, it is 
not being considered. Again in 1973, a meeting between the BLM 
and the Idaho State Parks Department was held to explore manage- 
ment transfer to the State. However, the State would not consider 
taking over administration responsibilities. 



1-15 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 



Owyhee County 

On August 2, 1975, the Owyhee County Commissioners passed an 
ordinance for preservation of historic properties in Silver City. 
The Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance became effective on August 
14, 1975. 

The purpose of the ordinance is to promote the historic, 
educational, cultural, economic, and general welfare of the people 
through preservation, restoration, and protection of the build- 
ings, structures and appurtenances, sites, places, and elements of 
historic interest within the area of Silver City. 

The Owyhee County Commissioners have created a Historic 
Advisory Committee to advise the commissioners on historic matters 
within Owyhee County. Members to the committee were appointed on 
May 9, 1977. 

The proposed action does not relieve the building owners from 
complying with the requirements of the ordinance (see Appendix B) . 



1-16 



Chapter 2 

Description of the Environment 




GENERAL STORE 



INTRODUCTION 

General 

Silver City lies in the Owyhee Mountain Range of southwestern 
Idaho. The town is located in Owyhee County, and is approximately 
50 miles southwest of Idaho's State Capital, Boise, and about 26 
miles south of Murphy, the Owyhee County Seat. 

State Highway 78 and US Highway 95 provide two-lane, year- 
round access to the area. Two county roads, unpaved, rough, 
winding, and steep in some spots, provide vehicular access into 
Silver City from these highways. The trip from State Highway 78 
near Murphy to Silver City is about 26 miles, and the route start- 
ing from US Highway 95 just north of Jordan Valley, Oregon, is 
about 30 miles (see Chapter 1 Vicinity Map). The latter route has 
been recently improved as far as DeLamar to service a new mine on 
DeLamar Mountain. Owyhee County maintains these dirt roads. 

Winter snows close the dirt roads into Silver City for two to 
four months each year. Access into town during this period is by 
snowmobiles, cross-country skis, and snowsleds. Melting snow in 
the spring can delay vehicle travel by creating muddy conditions 
and washed out sections along the road. 

Silver City is situated in a high (6,100), scenic mountain 
valley. The topography slopes gently upward for approximately 
one-quarter mile on the east and west, then sweeps upward more 



2-1 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

steeply to War Eagle Mountain (8,051) on the east and Florida 
Mountain (7,784) on the west. The major drainages of the area are 
Long Gulch which drains from the southeast and Jordan Creek which 
passes through Silver City (see Map 2-1). It is mainly in the 
modest opening in the mountains afforded by this juncture that the 
town has been built. Jordan Creek loses elevation at about 100 
feet to the mile in this vicinity. 

Climate in the Silver City area is characterized by four 
distinct seasons. Summers are very pleasant and cooler than 
temperatures in the nearby Snake River Valley. The average annual 
precipitation is about 23 inches, falling mostly as snow. The 
snow season runs from 100 to 140 days above the 5,500-foot level. 
Some rainfall occurs during the summer months in the form of 
afternoon thundershowers. The average maximum temperatures in 
Silver City are 78° in July and 36° in January, with the average 
minimum temperatures at 43° in July and 13° in January. Wind 
velocities of up to 50 mph have been reported in the winter. 

According to the Supervisor of the Air Quality Section, 
Division of Environment, Idaho State Department of Health, the air 
quality of the Silver City area presently meets all applicable air 
quality standards. The area is so situated that air drainage is 
good and is at an elevation above the stagnant air that sometimes 
lies in the adjacent valleys. There are no nearby air pollution 
sources large enough to cause noticeable pollution, except for 
range and forest fires which do cause occasional smokey conditions 
locally or regionally. 



2-2 



R 4W 



R3W 




2 MILES 



SCALE IN MILES 

TOPOGRAPHY 
MAP 2-1 



2-3 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 



Historic Setting and Significance 

The general area of Silver City had a prehistoric occupation 
which probably existed for as long as 10,000 or more years. At 
this time, relatively little is known concerning these aboriginal 
American cultures. 

European historic contact was made in the Owyhee Country 
sometime in the early 19th Century. Early historic discoveries 
were made by fur trappers. "Several trappers went to work in the 
general neighborhood at least as early as 1812, and a temporary 
fur trade post was established on the Snake River opposite the 
mouth of the Owyhee for use during the winter of 1813-1814" (Idaho 
State Historical Society, 1970:128). 

Fur trapping continued to abound in the area for some years 
later. The name "Owyhee" is an earlier spelling of a word that 
missionaries later spelled "Hawaii" when they devised an alphabet 
for the islands. Since then, the area has been known as the 
Owyhee Country (Ibid: 128). 

The entire Northwest had started to become populated in the 
early' 1800s, and many fur trapping parties made their way into 
Idaho from the East and Northwest. Great Britain held claim over 
what was known as the Oregon Country in the early 1800s. In June 
of 1846, the United States and Great Britain, in order to help 
clarify and to avoid disputes about boundary claims, entered into 
a treaty. The Treaty with Great Britain, June 15, 1846, estab- 
lishes the 49th parallel of north latitude as the boundary line 



2-4 



between the U.S. and British possessions west of the Rocky, or 
Stone, Mountains (Minot, Ed., 1851:869). "The Oregon Country was 
divided at the 49th parallel except that the southern tip of 
Vancouver Island was retained by the British. The settlement of 
the Oregon question added 180,644,480 acres to the public lands of 
the United States" (Gates, Paul, History of Public Land Law 
Development 1968:84). The Oregon Compromise included the present 
states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and western parts of Montana 
and Wyoming (Department of Interior, Historical Highlights of 
Public Land Management 1962:22). 

The 1840s witnessed an increase of newcomers in the terri- 
tory. In 1843 both the Oregon and California Trails had heavy 
wagon traffic through Idaho headed for their respective destina- 
tions. Some scraps with the local Indians slowed emigration into 
the area. However, much of the Oregon Trail through Idaho con- 
tinued in use as a stage and freight route, as well as an emigrant 
road, until sometime after 1862 (Idaho State Historical Society, 
State Historical Preservation Plan: Idaho, 1974:26). 

The 1850s traffic over the California Trail included many 
thousands of miners headed west in the big gold rush. A decade or 
so later, many of these miners began prospecting in Idaho. Gold 
was known in several parts of Idaho before 1860, but before G. D. 
Pierce, disguised as an Indian trader, prospected (illegally) on 
an Indian reservation and found gold, no one had seriously consider- 
ed Idaho's mineral possibilities (Ibid: 26-27). 



2-5 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

According to legend, a group of emigrants headed for Oregon 
had stopped their wagon train by a stream and some children picked 
gold nuggets out of the stream bed. It was not until several 
years later that the true value of the nuggets was realized, and 
by that time, the exact location was not clear. The discovery was 
placed as anywhere from Catherine Creek in Owyhee Country, Idaho, 
to Canyon Creek in Oregon (Adams, Mildretta, Historic Silver City 

1969:3). 

By 1862 gold in the Boise Basin had begun to change south- 
western Idaho. Many mining communities, including Pioneerville, 
Idaho City, and Placerville were established in 1862. Many miners 
were attracted to the Boise Basin and expansion from the Basin to 
other sections of the surrounding country began in early 1863. 

On May 18, 1863, Michael Jordan and his party of some 29 
prospectors from Placerville began to work the Owyhee Country 
south of the Snake River (Ibid:4). There, in the Owyhee Mountains, 
they panned a promising amount of gold from a stream that was 
later to carry the name of their leader (Johnson, Lonnie, An 
Historic Conservation Program: Silver City, Idaho, 1975:1). 
"After working up the stream a few days, they returned to Boise 
Basin with news that set off the Owyhee Gold Rush" (Idaho State 
Historical Society, Idaho State Historic Preservation Plan and 
Sites Survey, 1970:129). This strike saw some 2,500 on their way 
up the Owyhee Mountains from Boise Basin. Towns began to be 
established, one at a time. The first, Booneville, where Dewey is 



2-6 



now located, was in a canyon too narrow for expansion and so Ruby 
City sprang up, but also had expansion problems. 

Although Ruby City was the Owyhee County Seat in 1864, there 
was not enough room to grow and "what few development lots were 
available sold for exorbitant prices. In protest, Silver City was 
born one-half mile up the canyon. The comptetition (sic) between 
the two towns became intense as they fought for supremacy. Silver 
City had two advantages over Ruby City. First, it was located 
near the larger mines, and second, it was nestled between War 
Eagle Mountain and Florida Mountains which protected it from the 
violent winds that plagued Ruby City. Slowly, the population 
shifted to Silver City, and one-by-one the businesses followed" 
(Johnson, 1975:1). Silver City became the major town of the 
Owyhee Country, and, in fact, became the Owyhee County Seat in 
1867. It was the first Idaho city to have telegraph service and a 
daily newspaper, the Owyhee Avalanche, and it was one of the first 
towns to have full electrical service (McCroskey, William B., An 

Architectural Survey of Silver City, 1977). Silver City "was 

noted for its sobriety and its Sunday School" (Idaho State His- 
torical Society, 1974:32). 

Silver City experienced two stages of growth. The first 
began with the discoveries and lasted until the mid-1870s when 
outside financial failure caused the mines to first close; the 
second was from the early 1890s until the 1920s, with the majority 
of the wealth having been taken by about 1912 or so. The historic 



2-7 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

period of the town represents the temporal span of about 50 years, 
from 1865 to around 1910 (Hart, 1977: Personal Communication). 

The first period of growth began late in 1863. It has been 
estimated by the National Park Service (NPS, 1964:1) that a mining 
camp of about 250 men spent the winter of 1863-64 there, living in 
frame shacks. Silver City's rapid growth is indicated by the fact 
that approximately 3,000 inhabitants were there in 1866. 

One of the earliest known photographs was taken in May of 
1866 (Figure 2-1), "and indicates the new and growing community. 
The two-story building with the building materials (probably 
bundles of shingles) on the roof is reputed to be the photo gal- 
lery of Leslie and Co." (McCroskey, 1977). 

A lithograph (Figure 2-2), printed in 1866, is an artist's 
concept of Silver City. Note that the borders of the lithograph 
are decorated with drawings of local buildings and mills (McCros- 
key, 1977). 

In 1871 Silver City's business district is thought to have 
included at least ten general stores, four hotels, six saloons, 
one brewery, two furniture and cabinet makers, two meat markets, 
two stationery stores, two music stores, one stove and tin shop, 
two assay offices, one notary public, four lawyers, one doctor, a 
drug store, a stable, a photo shop, a Wells-Fargo Bank, one laun- 
dry, a shoe shop, a bakery, and a jewelry store. There were also 
two schools and two churches (Department of Interior, Prospector, 
Cowhand, and Sodbuster, 1967:1). 



2-8 




FIGURE 2-1. Silver City, May 1866. 

Courtesy of Idaho Historical Society. 







FIGURE 2-2. Lithograph. Artist's view of Silver 
City ca 1866. Courtesy of Idaho 
Historical Society. 



2-9 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

Although most of the buildings were not constructed in a 
permanent manner, some were, such as the masonry structure known 
as the Granite Block. "The Granite Block, with some maintenance, 
would probably be standing today, but this building was sold to 
the county for salvage during the Second World War" (McCroskey, 
1977). 

As community growth slowed in the 1870s due to financial 
problems, "Silver City was, indeed, almost a ghost town" (Ibid, 
1977). A photograph taken in the 1880s (Figure 2-3) shows the 
"Queen" during the slower times. 

Large scale mining resumed after 1884, and continued until 
1912. This period accounts for the greater part of silver produc- 
tion in the Owyhee mines. 

The first decline of Silver City in the 1870s instilled a 
pessimism in the residents during the renaissance of the community 
in the 1890s (see Figure 2-4) . Never again was a building erected 
in the town which was really meant to last a lifetime. The wood 
framing system of construction enjoyed a dominance of community 
construction techniques. Foundation systems were almost always 
mortarless granite block and rubble with a wood sill placed on the 
stone and the walls erected directly on this sill. In many cases, 
the flooring was laid on nailers which were placed in direct con- 
tact with the earth, and floor structures were not often tied into 
or connected to the wall stucture (Ibid, 1977). 



2-10 




FIGURE 2-3. View northward across Silver City ca 
1880 's. Courtesy of Idaho Historical 
Society. 




FIGURE 2-4. Looking toward Long Gulch Creek. Taken 
September 5, 1896. Courtesy of Idaho 
Historical Society. 



2-11 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

The earliest site plan ~J found indicates the locations of 
almost all the buildings and certainly, all the buildings within 
the city core of Silver City in June of 1903 (see Map 2-2) . Some 
of the buildings that did exist on the outskirts of the community 
do not now appear on the obviously cropped Sanborn Map of 1903 
(Ibid, 1977). A photograph (Figure 2-5) now provides a view taken 
from a nearby mountain at about the time of the earliest plat. 

Later site plans of 1931 and 1951 (Maps 2-3 and 2-4 respec- 
tively) provide map information and "are graphic illustrations of 
the known buildings in the community" (Ibid, 1977). Note how 
these site plats show the reduction in the numbers of structures 
through time. Further comparison can be made by relating any or 
all of the above-mentioned plats to the most recent 1977 map which 
was produced from an aerial photograph taken in 1977 (Map 2-7) . 

By using the historic site plans, a generally accurate assess- 
ment of how the numbers of major structures have changed over the 
115 some odd years Silver City has existed can be made. These 
numbers are shown in a graph (Figure 2-6) for clarity. Note the 
rapid buildup of structures during the two main stages of develop- 
ment and the steady decline after about 1915. 



1/ In this statement most of the historical site plan data is from 
Sanborn maps, physical evidence found during site investigation, 
historic photographs, county records, newspaper accounts of buildings 
in the community, and information from the files of the Idaho 
Surveying and Rating Bureau, Inc. 



2-12 




LEGEND 

Approximate location of privately 
owned buildings in 1903 



SILVER CITY 1903 



MAP NO. 2-2 



2-13 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 




FIGURE 2-5. A view of the "Queen" taken from a 
nearby mountain in November, 1906. 



2-14 



PATENTED 




LEGEND 

Approximate location of privately 
owned buildings in 1903 



SILVER CITY 1931 



3 



MAP NO. 2-3 



2-15 




Approximate location of privately 
owned buildings in 1951 



SILVER CITY 1951 



MAP NO. 2-4 



I 



2-16 



300 

250 

8 200 

-z. 

Q 

_l 

=> 
CO 

O 150 

a 

UJ 
CO 

z 

100 

50 























































































1880 1900 



1920 
YEARS 



1940 



I960 1980 



GROWTH AND DECLINE OF NUMBER OF 
BUILDINGS IN SILVER CITY 



FIGURE 2-6 



2-17 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

During the first period of growth, approximately 170 major 
structures (small out-buildings and "earth closets" excluded) were 
constructed. The largest number of structures, about 215, was 
attained during the second growth period. By using the historic 
site plans, it was estimated that the numbers of remaining build- 
ings in existence were 120 in 1931 and 80 in 1951. By. 1977, this 
number had declined to 70. 

These figures show that Silver City was "a sizable community, 

still, into the 20th century but, then, she began to falter 

and her population diminished and her buildings were indeed biode- 
gradable" (Ibid, 1977). Not only did the town and buildings 
diminish from the effects of time but, also, from man. Many 
structures were torn down and used for salvage (i.e., the Granite 
Block during WW II) and others were undoubtedly vandalized. It 
appears that the rate of decline has slowed somewhat since the 
early 1950s. It was about that time that a renewed interest in 
Silver City began. 

After the mining had all but stopped in the late 1920s, most 
of the remaining people and businesses moved out. There was, 
however, a store (Lennods General Store) which remained open 
during the summers until sometime in the early 1950s (Hyslop , 
August 1977). Many of the buildings deteriorated into ruin, but 
some of them were kept up and used on a seasonal basis (Wells, 
1977). The last old-time permanent resident, Willie Hawes , died 
in 1967. "Hawes was for years the self-appointed guardian of 



2-18 



Silver City, adding to the color of the proud, old camp with 
lively tales of its boom town days" (Hanley, M. and E. Lucia, The 
West's Forgotten Corner, 1973:230). 

In the last 15 years or so, interest in Silver City has 
dramatically increased. Silver City was studied by the National 
Park Service as long ago as 1958 as part of their National Survey 
of Historic Sites and Buildings. The essence of the National 
Survey findings is reported in Prospector, Cowhand, and Sodbuster , 
published by the National Park Service in 1967. As a result of 
the National Park Service study, Silver City was classified as 
having regional and State significance. 

In 1971, Dr. Merle Wells, State of Idaho Historic Preserva- 
tion Officer, nominated a 10,240-acre area around Silver City to 
be included in the National Register of Historic Places as an 
Historic District (see Map 2-5). The Historic District was placed 
on the National Register on May 19, 1972, as indicated by the 
National Register of Historic Places, dated February 1, 1977. No 
other nominations were within the geographic area of the District. 

Today, Silver City has two buildings being used as year-round 
residences and 68 buildings are occupied for various lengths of 
time as summer retreats. Some of the present day users are descen- 
dents of earlier residents of Silver City of the Owyhee Country. 

Currently, there is no known active mining and production 
within Silver City. However, occasional assessment or exploratory 



2-19 




SILVER CITY HISTORIC DISTRICT 



MAP 2-5 



2-20 



work is being done on unpatented claims in the area. Today, 
Silver City's principal income is from tourism. The town receives 
between 20,000 to 30,000 visitors annually. 

The following photographs showing some of the buildings of 
Silver City are from various dates. All are courtesy of the Idaho 
Historical Society. Note the clarity of the photo of the Idaho 
Hotel taken in July of 1867. 




FIGURE 2-7. Idaho Hotel - July 1869 Block 4, Lots 
78, 79, and 80. This building still 
exists today. See Figure 2-31. 



2-21 




FIGURE 2-8. No date. From left to right, Grete 
Boarding House (Block 1, Lot 11), and 
Roger's Boarding House (Block 1, Lot 12). 




-.- 



- * . - 



. -• 






• '3* 



FIGURE 2-9. No date. From left to right, Silver 
Slipper Saloon (Block 1, Lot 25), 
Getchell Drug Store (Block 1, Lot 24), 
and Granite Block (Block 1, Lots 22 
and 23). 



2-22 




FIGURE 2-10. No date. A view of Washington Street. 
Note electric wires and poles. 




FIGURE 2-11. 



1890' s. A typical dwelling. Thought 
to be the Bowen Residence. 



2-23 



: :. il il!:..iM ■ 




FIGURE 2-12. No date. Catholic Church (Block 11, 
Lot 59). Note addition ot new roof. 





^iS^g.^-- 



■*»*fi^> 



''■ ...V"- r ■ 



FIGURE 2-13. Stoddard House (Block 5, Lot 9). A 

unique detailed home in comparison with 
others in the community. 



2-24 




FIGURE 2-14. Masonic Hall (Block 4, Lot 74 1/2). 

This building was first constructed as 
a planing mill . 



DESCRIPTION OF THE SILVER CITY STUDY AREA 

The Silver City Environmental Statement (ES) study area is a 
160-acre tract of land that encompasses Silver City, Idaho. It is 
described as T. 5 S., R. 3 W. , sec. 6, S^NE^sSE 1 -*;, Boise Meridian, 
within Owyhee County (see Map 2-6). The study area was defined 
for the purpose of describing the environmental setting in which 
both direct and indirect impacts may occur as a result of imple- 
menting the proposed action or one of the alternatives. 



2-25 



T5S R3W 
S±NE^ ,N±SE± ^ec.G 




330 



660 



990 



1320 



SCALE IN FEET 



SILVER CITY ES STUDY AREA 
MAP 2-6 

2-26 



I 



Within the study area there are 140.90 acres of public land 
managed by the BLM and 19.10 acres of private land. The private 
land consists of one mill site patent and portions of two patented 
mining claims. 

The following sections describe the Silver City ES study area 
as it exists today. Emphasis has been placed on those items most 
likely to be impacted by the proposed action or the alternatives. 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . There are 70 buildings on public land in 

Silver City (see Map 2-7) or about 30 percent of the buildings 

Silver City once had. The buildings are used basically as summer 

residences, although there are three known permanent residents. 

Appendix B provides historical information on each existing 

building. 

Of the 70 buildings present, at least five are of a non- 
historic nature (Figure 2-15). Of the remaining historic struc- 
tures, 27 or 44 percent are considered to be of high, or primary, 
historic significance, i.e., buildings that are independently 
eligible for the National Register. Table 2-1 lists the struc- 
tures thought to be of primary historic significance. The 34 
buildings left (56 percent) are of secondary importance, that is, 
buildings that collectively are eligible for the National Register 
(see Map 2-8) . The historical significance was determined by a 
general consensus of McCroskey, 1977, and the Idaho State His- 
torical Society, 1977. 



2-27 







FIGURE 2-15. Pre-built Boise Cascade Home (Block 1, 
Lot 25 1/2] . Date of construction 
ca 1970. 



2-28 




SILVER CITY 1977 



MAP NO. 2-7 



2-29 



TABLE 2-1 
TABLE OF PRIMARY (HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT) STRUCTURES 



Block 

No. 


Lot 

No. 


Date of 
Construction 


Purpose of Construction 
and/or Historic Period Use 


Present 
Use 


1 


11 


ca 1873 


Boarding House 


Seasonal Dwelling 




12 


1873 


Boarding House 


Seasonal Dwelling 




16 


1870 


Telephone Office and 
Lodgings 


Occasional Lodge 
Use 




24 


1873 


Drug Store and 

Post Office 


Seasonal Dwelling 




25 


1896 


Candy and Notions and 
Dentist's Office 


Occasional Shop 


2 


11 & 12 


1874 


Hotel Office & Rooms 
& Chinese Laundry 


Seasonal Dwelling 




13 


1873 


County Offices 


Seasonal Dwelling 




31 


1896 


(Lippencott Building) 
Dr.'s Office & Dwelling 


Seasonal Dwelling 




31Sj 


1896 


Pharmacy 


Seasonal Dwelling 


3 


84* 


1865 


Barber Shop and 
Bath House 


Seasonal Dwelling 




85 & 86 


1865 


(Hawe's Bazaar) 
General Store 


Seasonal Dwelling 




87 


1865 


Butcher Shop 


Seasonal Dwelling 


4 


67 


1869 


Saloon 


Seasonal Dwelling 




68 


1869 


Assay Office 


Seasonal Dwelling 




Ikh 


1869 


(Masonic Temple) 
Planning Mill 


Occasional Hall Use 




75 


.1.867 


Hardware Store 


Seasonal Dwelling 




76 


1867 


General Store 


Seasonal Dwelling 




78, 79, 
& 80 ** 


1865 & 66 


(Idaho Hotel) 
Hotel 


Full-time Dwelling 
and Business 




81 


1890 


Hotel Rooms 


Seasonal Dwelling 




84 


1875 


Dwelling 


Seasonal Dwelling 


5 


4 


1892 


School 


Museum 




9 


1870 


(Stoddard Mansion) 
Dwelling 


Seasonal Dwelling 


7 


31 


1867 


Ice House 


Dwelling - Storage 


11 


55 aaa 


1864 


Miners' Union Hospital 


Seasonal Dwelling 




59 


1897 


Church 


Occasional Church 
Use 



(McCroskey, 1977) 

* A not too common occurrence of a Black American business in early 

Western times (Johnson, 1975:17). 
** This hotel was built in Ruby City and moved in three parts by ox team 

to Silver City (NPS, 1964). 
*** This building is constructed of wood siding over adobe brick 

(McCroskey, 1977). 



2-30 



f.".~VFu 




LEGEND 

Major historic buildings 
Supportive historic buildings 
Non-historic buildings 



SILVER CITY 1977 

HISTORIC AND ARCHITECTURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF SILVER CITY BUILDINGS 
MAP NO. 2-0 



2-31 



The following photography shows buildings of great historic 
importance. They were taken during the summer of 1977. 







FIGURE 2-16. 



Roger's Boarding House (Block 1, Lot 
11), Silver City, 1977 May 2-7. 
Building is used as a dwelling today. 



2-32 







FIGURE 2-17. Grete Boarding House (Block 1, Lot 12), 
Silver City, 1977 Map 2-7. Building 
is used as a dwelling today. 




FIGURE 2-18. IOOF Building (Block 1, Lot 16) 
Silver City Map 2-7. 



See 



2-33 




¥ 






FIGURE 2-19. Silver Slipper Saloon on left (Block 1, 
Lot 25); Gretchell Drug (Block 1, Lot 
24) on right. Both buildings are used 
as dwellings. 




FIGURE 2-20. 



Idaho Hotel Annex (Block 2, Lot 11) 
Building used as a dwelling today. 



2-34 




FIGURE 2-21. 



Old County Offices (Block 2, Lot 13) 
Present use is seasonal dwelling. 




FIGURE 2-22. Old Telephone Office (Block 2, 
Lot 31 1/2). 



2-35 



si; 




FIGURE 2-23. Old Lippincott Building (Block 2, 
Lot 31). Present use is dwelling. 




FIGURE 2-24. Hawes Bazaar in center (Block 3, Lot 
85). Barber Shop on right. Both 
buildings are used as dwellings. 



2-36 



" 'fmi 




FIGURE 2-25. 



Old butcher shop (Block 3, Lot 87) on 
left, and old souvenir shop (Block 3, 
Lot 86) on right. Present use is 
seasonal dwelling. 




FIGURE 2-26. Old furniture store (Block 3, Lot 91). 



2-37 




^lSKt»a^~t :r- ■ _^' 



immm&r 



FIGURE 2-27. Masonic Temple (Block 4, Lot 74 1/2). 




FIGURE 2-28. Old General Store on left (Block 4, 

Lot 76); old Owyhee Avalanche on right 
(Block 1, Lot 75). Both buildings are 
used as dwellings. 



2-38 



I 

>•■'■ i 



1 




FIGURE 2-29. Idaho Hotel (Block 4, Lots 78 - 80) 
Present use is a dwelling and cafe. 




I 



11 

!'■! 
■ 



FIGURE 2-30. Old Hotel Annex (Block 4, Lot 81) 
Present use is dwelling. 



: 

I 



2-39 




FIGURE 2-31. 



School House (Block 5, Lot 4). 
as a museum today. 



Used 




.;': 



•■■■ 



-■■ 



2 \;!) : ,,:>.' ; ; . 



FIGURE 2-32. Stoddard House (Block 5, Lot 9). 
Present use is seasonal dwelling. 



2-40 



'"-";■' 




-■■■ 




FIGURE 2-33. 



Old Ice Building (Block 7, Lot 31). 
This building has been moved and 
attached to the building next door 
(Block 7, Lot 32). 




FIGURE 2-34. Old Miners' Hospital (Block 11, Lot 55) 
Present use is dwelling. 



2-41 



^B* 




FIGURE 2-35. Catholic Church (Block 11, Lot 59) 



Historic Preservation Funds . Although there are federal 
funds such as Grants-in-Aid and Tax Reform Act funds available for 
historic preservation of properties listed on the National Regis- 
ter, there have been no known federal funds of any type spent on 
the buildings of Silver City (Wells, 1977). However, the National 
Trust for Historic Preservation, a private, non-profit corporation 
chartered by Congress to aid public participation in historic 
preservation, has funded two Silver City projects. The building 
owners have provided the principal source of funds used for his- 
toric preservation of Silver City. 



2-42 



Alteration of Historic Buildings . Almost all buildings in 
Silver City have been changed or reconstructed in some manner. 
Although they may not be readily apparent, many of these changes 
have extended the life of the greater portion of the buildings. 
According to McCroskey (1977), "it is certainly realistic to 
conclude that Silver City would be more a memory than a reality 
today, if it had not been for the upkeep done by the building 
owners. " 

Many of these changes have resulted in alterations to the 
exterior that are not historically accurate. During the 1977 
architectural survey, exterior alterations and material or form 
that were not of the historic period of 1865 to 1910 were iden- 
tified (McCroskey, 1977). 

Fifty-nine of the 70 buildings were altered or reconstructed 
in such a manner that they were not in keeping with the original 
construction. One hundred and two readily apparent exterior 
alterations have been identified (see Table 2-2) . These intru- 
sions have been classified as: (1) roof alterations; (2) new 
buildings or major additions; (3) intrusive siding, windows, block 
chimney, and porches; and/or (4) toilets, propane tanks, and 
generators. 

Figure 2-36 graphically presents the exterior intrusive 
alterations. An example of each of the four categories of in- 
trusive alterations is shown in Figures 2-37 through 2-41. 



2-43 



1 


Table 2- 


2 




BUILDING ALTERATIONS 


OR ADDITIONS 4/ 




Exterior Alterations 


Exterior Alterations 




Before Silver City 


After Silver City 


Block Lot 


Zoning Ordinance 


Zoning Ordinance 


l 1 


Galvanized roof 1/ 




I 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Porch removed 




■ 


Building restored 
Galvanized roof 1/ 




■ 


Building restored 
Galvanized roof 1/ 
Toilet 1/ 




25 


Galvanized roof 1/ 




■ 


New building 1/ 
Toilet 1/ 




50% 


Galvanized roof 1/ 




51 


Building rebuilt 
Galvanized roof 1/ 




■ 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
New siding 1/ 




■ 




Galvanized roof 1/ 
Roof line modification 


I 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Siding 1/ 




62% 




Building rebuilt 


1 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Siding (aluminum) 1/ 
Window (aluminum) 1/ 




1 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Addition 1/ 




1 , n 


Balcony and walk 
Galvanized roof 1/ 
Toilet 1/ 




13 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Propane tank 1/ 




31 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Block chimney 1/ 
Propane tank 1/ 




■ 


Porch J7 




3 85-87 


Galvanized porch roof 1/ 




101% 


Galvanized roof 1/ 
Block chimney 1/ 
Propane tank 1/ 
Window (aluminum) 1/ 
Toilet J_/ 




1 


2-44 


. , , — — — - 



Table 2-2 (continued) 



Block 



Lot 



67&68 



74^ 



75&76 



,79 
80 



81 
Si- 



Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Window (aluminum) 1_/ 
Propane tank 1_/ 
Galvanized roof \J 

Generator 1_/ 
Porch 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Propane tank 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Siding 1/ 
Propane tank 1_/ 
Addition 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1/ 



Galvanized roof 2/ 



3 

4 

5 

5% 

6 



9 

10 

12 



Galvanized roof 1_/ 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 

Galvanized roof 1__/ 

Galvanized roof 1/ 
Siding (plywood) 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Block chimney 1_/ 
Addition 1_/ 
Siding (plywood) 1_/ 
Porch 1/ 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1/ 



Rebuilt shed 1/, 3/ 



Porch 3/ 



Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Additions 1_/ 
Propane tank !_/ 
Toilet 1/ 



2-45 



Block Lot 



Table 2-2 (continued) 



32 



40 
42 

43 



46 



Building rebuilt 
Galvanized roof 1/ 
Block chimney 1/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Block chimney _1/ 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Addition 

Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Additions 1_/ 
Propane tank 1_/ 
Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Block chimney 1_/ 
Window (aluminum) 1_/ 
Propane tank 1_/ 
Addition 



Addition 3/ 



10 



14 




17 


Galvanized roof 1/ 




Toilet 1/ 




Siding (redwood) 1/ 


24 


Galvanized roof 1/ 


25,26 


Galvanized roof 1/ 




Block chimney 1/ 



Galvanized roof 1_/ 
Addition 1/ 



Building rebuilt 1/ , 2/ 



11 51 Galvanized roof \_l 
Porch J7 

52 Siding (plywood) 1/ 
Propane tank _1_/ 

53 Galvanized roof - partial 1_/ 

54 Galvanized roof _1_/ 
55 

59 Galvanized roof 1_/ 

60 Galvanized roof 1/ 

61 Galvanized roof 1/ 



Galvanized roof 1/, 2/ 



Major addition 1_/, 2/ 



_1_/ Alterations that are not in keeping with the original construc- 
tion, or the historic period of 1865 to 1910. 

2/ Alterations that are in compliance with the Silver City Zoning 
Ordinance. 



2-46 



Table 2-2 (continued) 



3/ Alterations that are not in compliance with the Silver City 
Zoning Ordinance. 

4/ This table represents readily apparent exterior alterations 
known as of October 9, 1977. It should be noted that some 
buildings been altered since this date. 



2-47 



52% 




24% 



Galvanize roof and alteration 



2. Addition and new building 



3. Siding , window, chimney, porch 



4. Misc. toilets, propane, tanks, generator. 



Categories of intrusive Alterations 



FIGURE 2-36 



2-48 




FIGURE 2-37. This building (Block 5, Lot 8%) depicts 
the following intrusions: galvanized 
roof, cement block chimney, altered 
roof gable with unmatched siding and an 
intrusive cement block addition to the 
original structure. 




FIGURE 2-38. A cement block chimney intrusion on 
this building (Block 2, Lot 31). 



2-49 




FIGURE 2-39. 



This house is a prefabricated structure 
place on a mortared rubble foundation 
of undetermined date. It has no 
historic architecture qualities and was 
placed on the foundation in 1970 (Block 



1, Lot 



25% 



2-50 




■ •**■«. Tfe (£&. " 



FIGURE 2-40. An example of a propane tank intrusion 
behind the Idaho Hotel (Block 4, Lots 
78, 79, and 80). 



2-51 




FIGURE 2-41. 



These two photos represent an intrusive 
addition (Block 1, Lot 43) and outhouse 
structure. 




2-52 



Historic Archaeology . Silver City is, in itself, a historic 
archaeological site. The Smithsonian site number which represents 
the area is 10 OE 1168 (Sprague, Roderick, Historical Archaeol- 
ogical Testing at Silver City, 1977:2). 

During the summer of 1977, Dr. Roderick Sprague, Historic 
Archaeologist from the University of Idaho at Moscow, assessed the 
historic archaeology of the Silver City study area. A careful 
surface survey was made to determine the archaeological resource 
of Silver City. Of 260 lots surveyed, 90 lots or 34.5 percent 
indicated potential high archaeological value, 164 lots or 63 
percent had less potential value, and the remaining six lots or 
2.5 percent could not be evaluated. Appendix C presents the 
methodology used in assessing the archaeological resource. 

In summary, Dr. Sprague 's historical archaeological assess- 
ment indicates that Silver City has, in spite of extensive destruc- 
tion and modification, a very high potential for the recovery of 
scientific and interpretive data. 

The archaeological resource of Silver City is suffering from 
three major effects: (1) amateur archaeological and bottle- 
collecting activity; (2) extensive parking, camping, and pic- 
nicking activity; and (3) excavation in connection with the main- 
tenance and repair of existing structures (Sprague, 1977). In 
addition, the archaeological resource suffered the following 
impacts: (1) use of materials from ruins by the building owners 
for maintenance and repair of their existing structures; (2) use 



2-53 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

of materials from ruins by the building owners to build new struc- 
tures; and (3) deterioration of the fragile archaeological re- 
source and buildings by continued use. The exact degree of each 
of these impacts is unknown. However, collectively these ac- 
tivities are known to damage, often irreparably, the archaeolog- 
ical resource of Silver City. 

The Silver City Taxpayers Association hired a watchman in 
1970 to protect the property of Silver City from vandals. This 
action has provided some degree of protection to the archaeolog- 
ical resource, but the impacts discussed in this section continue 
to occur. 

Prehistoric Archaeology . There are no known prehistoric 
archaeological sites within the study area (Green, Tom, Idaho 
State Archaeologist, Personal Communication, 1977). 

Paleontology . There are no known paleontological sites 
within the study area. 

Land Use 

Grazing The Silver City study area is within a large grazing 
allotment used in common by the J. H. Nettleton and the Joyce 
Livestock Company. Approximately 6,000 animal unit months (AUMs) 
are allowed for the entire allotment of 43,395 acres which in- 
cludes Silver City. Grazing use occurs between June 1 and Nov- 
ember 1 in the vicinity of Silver City. The allotment is grazed 
by cows and calves, and the carrying capacity is about ten acres 
per animal unit month. There is no allotment management plan for 



2-54 



the area. With deductions to account for that area occupied by 
buildings, roads, etc., there would be about ten AUMs of forage 
within the study area. 

Mining. Placer gold was discovered in the Owyhee Mountains in 
1863. The stream beds of Jordan Creek and its principal tribu- 
taries near Silver City were worked-out by successive placer 
mining operations in a few years. About the time placer gold was 
gone, rich lodes carrying high values in silver and gold were 
discovered, first on War Eagle Mountain, then on Florida Mountain. 
The lode veins were quite well defined and relatively easy to find 
and follow underground. The ore near the surface was exceedingly 
rich in most mines but diminished rapidly as the depth below the 
surface increased. One by one lode mines played out when the 
enriched ore near the surface was gone. Essentially all profit- 
able mining activity came to a stop during the 1920s. 

In 1973, the BLM evaluated the mineral resource potential for 
Silver City and surrounding lands. It was concluded that the 
mineral values have been mined out and that there is little or no 
potential for new discoveries (U.S. Department of the Interior 
Mineral Report, 1973). 

On August 24, 1974, a proposal by the BLM to withdraw 522.67 
acres of public lands, including Silver City and surrounding 
lands, was officially filed (Case No. 1-8856). Withdrawal from 
mineral location and entry under the mining laws was proposed. 
The purpose was to protect the scenic, historic, watershed, wild- 



2-55 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

life, and recreation resources of the old mining towns of Silver 
City and Ruby City from potentially detrimental (mining) activity. 
No further action has been taken by the Bureau in the processing 
of the proposal. By regulation, the withdrawal went into affect 
as of the date of filing, but the withdrawal had no effect on 
existing claims, and has no specified time limit. However, the 
Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 provides that such 
proposals as this must be processed and adjudicated to conclusion 
within 15 years after October 21, 1976. 

Mining Claims . Most of the buildings at Silver City are on 
unpatented mining claims (see Map 2-9) . The unpatented claims are 
lode claims with the exception of the Holy Terror and Holy Terror 
No. 1, which are placer claims. Lode claims are usually rectan- 
gular and can be up to 1,500 feet long and 600 feet wide, whereas 
placer claims are restricted only by maximum permissible acreage, 
depending on the number of persons who join together to make the 
location. 

Only the Home Lode has been officially surveyed and has the 
designation "Mineral Survey No. 1577." According to the BLM land 
records, the Home Lode M.S. No. 1577 was located on July 23, 1885, 
by F. M. St. Clair and F. T. Douglas, and was described as being 
bounded on the north by the Morning Star and on the south by the 
Potosi and "runs under the Idaho Hotel." When surveyed in 1900, 
the claim was owned by David Adams and Timothy Regan. These 
gentlemen made application for patent in 1908 (B-02421) . The 
application was rejected in January 1913, for "lackes", i.e., 



2-56 



T5S R3W 
S{ NE^ , N-^SE^ , Sec. 6 




o 
i 



1320 



SCALE IN FEET 



Patented Mining Claims 
Surveyed Mining Claims 



MINING 



Unsurveyed Mining Claims 



MAP 2-9 



2-57 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

failure to diligently comply with requirements for submitting 
proofs. The record shows that sometime after the application was 
filed, the interest of David Adams devolved upon Green Adams. The 
present Home claim appears to be a relocation in 1923 by W. J. 
Stoddard, predecessor in interest to the present owners. 

Other than the Home Lode M.S. 1577, the relative positions of 
the unpatented claims, as shown on the mining claim map, have been 
plotted from either narrative descriptions or location notices and 
other information which was sometimes augmented by old, unofficial 
maps. 

The following table provides information from the official 
records of Owyhee County with respect to known, actively held 
unpatented mining claims located within the study area: 



Claim 
Home Lode 

Home Fraction Lode 
Roosevelt Lode 
Mary Ann Lode 
Belle Stoddard Lode 
Marjorie Lode 
West Star Lode 
Florence Lode 



Locators 

Wm. J. Stoddard, et al. 

Win. J. Stoddard, et al. 

Wm. J. Stoddard, et al. 

Wm. J. Stoddard, et al . 

Wm. J. Stoddard, et al. 

Wm. J. Stoddard, et al . 

Wm. J. Stoddard, et al. 
Lorenzo Pedracini, et al. 



2/Teg Lodes 1-258; 300-303 Silver Enterprise Mining 

Corp. 

Holy Terror Placer W. A. Lewis 

Holy Terror No.l Placer W. A. & Emily B. Lewis 



Recent Notices of 

Annual Assessment 

Work Filed By: 

Philip Cramer 1_/ 

Philip Cramer 

Philip Cramer 

Philip Cramer 

Philip Cramer 

Philip Cramer 

Philip Cramer 

Bill Hansen 1_/ , et ux 

Silver Enterprise 
Mining Corp. 

H. R. Statham 1_/ , et al . 

H. R. Statham, et al. 



1_/Philip Cramer, Bill Hanson, and H. R. Statham are the only building 
owners who have mining claims within Silver City. Philip Cramer's 
and Bill Hanson's homes are located on their respective unpatented 
claims. 

2/Not shown on Map 2-2 since this is a very large group of claims, 
apparently overlapping all the other claims and the entire area of 
the statement. The configuration is not determined. 



2-58 



The only patented claim within Silver City is the five acre 
Tip Top Mill Site, M.S. 1303B shown on Map 2-3. There are three 
owners, one of whom has a two-story residence, a garage, and 
storage building. The tract was the site of the Lincoln Mill of 
which only the foundation remains. The Idaho Power Company for- 
merly used a portion of the site for a power substation. 
Recreation . The Idaho State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan 
(SCORP) identifies Silver City as a significant national recrea- 
tion resource requiring special protection. It suggests that BLM 
set aside this resource and manage it primarily for resource 
protection and recreation. 

The primary activity at Silver City is sightseeing which 
centers around the historic structures, old mines, and schoolhouse 
museum. Many people record their visits through photography. 
Silver City is one of the most photographed attractions in south- 
west Idaho. 

Silver City's value as a sightseeing attraction is due to a 
combination of natural features, mining development, and historic 
buildings. In mid-summer, the upper Jordan Creek Basin also 
provides a welcome relief from high temperatures in the lower 
valleys. 

Depending on the time of year and the condition of the access 
road, travel may be by passenger car, pick-up, 4-wheel drive, 
foot, horseback, motorcycle, snowmobile, or cross country ski. 
The form of transportation may be an important part of the total 



2-59 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

visit. There are about 15 miles of low-quality roads and trails 
in the study area that are used for hiking, off-road vehicle 
operation, and cross country skiing. Jordan Creek supports trout 
and fishing is only rated as fair (BLM's West Owyhee URA Recrea- 
tion Evaluation) . 

Those visiting in the winter find it very rewarding since 
they can better relate to the difficulties and personal hardships 
associated with life in early mining camps in the Idaho mountains. 

Fall foliage colors, spring flowers, and winter snows all 
contribute to the ever changing scene and contribute to the sight- 
seeing experience. 

Recreation Facilities and Management . At present the BLM's 
effort to manage recreation use in the study area is minimal. The 
Boise District has attempted to provide some visitor use super- 
vision and to control littering by placing a recreation aide and 
fire crew in Silver City during the summer months. 

There are no developed camp or picnic facilities in the study 
area. No potable public water is supplied by the BLM. Public 
sanitary facilities in the study area consist of two vault toilets 
north of town, and two at the south end. 

Access roads into the area are only maintained at a minimal 
level. Limited commercial facilities are currently available in 
the Idaho Hotel. The hotel services include guided tours, limited 
food service, and the sale of pamphlets and books. A museum in 
the schoolhouse is open to the public during the summer season. 



2-60 



i 



Interpretation, other than what is available at the hotel, the 
museum, or by talking to Silver City taxpayers, consists of brief 
building descriptions posted on some buildings. 

A number of people arrive in Silver City expecting to find a 
full range of facilities including service stations, grocery 
stores, and motels. The Idaho Highway Map indicates an improved 
road connects State Highway 45 and US 95. This has resulted in 
serious problems to some travelers in the past. 

Visitor Use . Estimates of annual visitation range from 
20,000 to 30,000 visits based on information from the Silver City 
Taxpayers Association and the BLM. Heavy use occurs during summer 
weekends, especially those involving holidays. The peak occurs in 
late July, when the annual Owyhee Cattlemen's Association Conven- 
tion attracts over 1,000 people to Silver City. 

An examination of the visitor book in the Idaho Hotel for the 
period from January 9 to June 16, 1976, showed that 627 signatures 
were from Idaho, 66 from Oregon, 30 from California, and 18 from 
Washington. There were also nine visitors from Canada, Great 
Britain, Mexico, and West Germany. The majority of the Idaho use 
originates from the Treasure Valley area in southwest Idaho. 
According to BLM records and information on the guest register, 
people from every state have visited Silver City. 

The largest single group of recreation visitors to Silver 
City are the building owners themselves. Proportionately, they 
account for the greatest recreation use, if all their visits 



2-61 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

during periods of occupancy or at other times are considered to be 
for recreation purposes. Potential recreation use of Silver City 
is covered later in Chapter 2 of the section titled Description of 
the Future Environment without the Proposed Action. 

Aesthetics 

Visual Resource . The natural landscape in the study area has been 
totally modified by mining activity, road construction, and settle- 
ment of Silver City. The resulting scene represents the primary 
attraction in the study area. 

At one time, the surrounding mountains were denuded, but 
second growth timber stands have become established. 

The existing natural landscape enhances the individual char- 
acter of each standing building and the ruins of former buildings. 
The evidence of past mining (shafts, tailing piles, and roads) 
scars the surrounding hillsides but is an important part of the 
area's history and adds to the scene. 

The dominant landscape feature is probably color. The nat- 
ural vegetation, exposed soil and rock, and weathered wood in the 
buildings all contribute to this montage of color. As the seasons 
change, so do the colors, including the different shadow and light 
patterns on the surrounding hillsides. 

The most obtrusive features in the landscape are modern 
vehicles. 



2-62 



gjjPB^HHHBWBMHi 



Air quality as it relates to viewing the characteristic 
landscape is good. The only exception would be dust from the 
movement of vehicles. 

Noise . Based upon field observations, noise levels in the study 
area vary considerably depending on the season and day of the 
week. Generally, mid-summer weekend noise levels are the highest 
due to the number of visitors. The only exception would be the 
noise of a few gas-powered generators. Overall noise levels are 
very low in the area, normally less than the 92 db rating associ- 
ated with automobile traffic. 

Odor . A noticeable odor is wood smoke. There may also be some 
localized odors associated with the existing outhouses. Cattle 
graze in town and along Jordan Creek. These animals never reach 
numbers which would cause a problem, but there are odors associ- 
ated with their presence. 

Soil 

Silver City and the immediate vicinity are within an area of 
about 50 square miles which has been invaded by an intrusion of 
granite which is apparently an off-shoot from the extensive area 
of the Idaho Batholith, of similar granitic material covering most 
of central Idaho. This structure includes the higher mountains 
immediately to the north, east, and south of Silver City, includ- 
ing War Eagle Mountain. Between Silver City and the summit of 
Florida Mountain, however, the surface geology changes abruptly 
from granitic to Columbia River basalt. 



2-63 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

Bedrock granite is readily exposed in street and road cuts 
and in foundation excavations within Silver City. The granite is 
a poor aquifer. Domestic water has in the past been derived from 
surface water sources. 

The soils of the area are poorly developed. For the most 
part the surface covering consists of coarse decomposed granite 
over bedrock. The surface cover of decomposed granite is highly 
permeable and does not erode readily. However, soil alterations 
associated with building, structure modification or maintenance 
occurs. This disturbance is normally confined to the construction 
area. 

Vegetation 

The present vegetation in and around Silver City has evolved 
as a result of many influences of man. During the late 1800s and 
early 1900s, much of the standing timber was cut and used as 
support structures in the mine tunnels and slopes. This resulted 
in a general opening up of the canopy and allowed an increase in 
the number of grasses and forbs that comprise the vegetative 
community. This is also evidenced by the many Douglas fir, moun- 
tain mahogany, and juniper seedlings found in the immediate 
vicinity. These tree species were also utilized for firewood and 
construction material during the active mining days. 

About twenty acres have been altered as a result of placer 
mining in the area. These areas exhibit a wide variety of invader 



2-64 



vegetative species that are common to an area in an early serai 
stage after a massive surface disturbance. 

For definitive purposes, the vegetation within the ES area 
can be divided into six distinct areas. 

Area £ - Mountain Mahogany/ Juniper . These areas are found on 
steep slopes with shallow, dry soils and consequently, support a 
more sparse vegetative community than surrounding areas. The 
dominant vegetation in these areas is mountain mahogany, juniper, 
and scattered Douglas fir. A small stand of limber pine is 
situated on Newsome Ridge just northeast of the Morning Star Mine. 
This is considered to be a disjunct population and is probably a 
remnant of a former climatic period. 

Area II - Creek Bottoms . Dominant vegetative species in this area 
include dense stands of willow with scattered poplar, cottonwood, 
and chokecherry trees along the creek bottoms. Understory species 
are relatively abundant in this area because of the availability 
of water and fertile soil. 

Area III - Protected Areas . There are two cemeteries within the 
study area. The large cemetery west of Jordan Creek has been 
fenced for many years and has received no significant grazing 
pressure from domestic animals. The fence around this area should 
be maintained in good condition because the vegetation inside the 
boundary serves as an excellent reference. Species diversity 
inside the cemetery is much higher than outside, thus giving an 
indication of the natural potential of the site. Dominant species 



2-65 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

within the cemetery include quaking aspen, elderberry, snowberry, 
sunflower, mountain brome, needlegrass, and squirreltail. 
Area IV - Mountain Shrub . This area is found in the foothill 
areas adjacent to the valley bottom. Soils here are deeper and 
more fertile than those found in the mountain mahogany and juniper 
area. The slopes are more gentle and there are fewer -rocks in the 
soil profile. Dominant vegetative species in this area include 
big sagebrush, snowberry, rose, currant, Indian paintbrush, holly 
grape, bluegrass, and needlegrass. 

Scattered stands of juniper and Douglas fir occur in the 
higher elevations of this area. Douglas fir is usually found on 
north exposures. 

Area V - Vegetation within Town Boundaries . Many domestic and 
ornamental species still inhabit the roadsides and abandoned yards 
and gardens within the town. Many of these species appear to be 
reproducing and actually increasing in numbers. Cottonwood and 
poplar trees still occur along some of the streets. Yards in the 
old residential areas still have remnants of roses, elderberries, 
willows, lilacs, and currants. 

Area VI - Conifer/Aspen . This area is characterized by Douglas 
fir and quaking aspen. Scattered juniper and mountain mahogany 
also occur in the lower reaches of this area. 

Native species observed during a field investigation con- 
ducted on July 26, 1977, included the following: 



2-66 



Grasses 



Volga wild rye 
Basin wild rye 
Sandburg bluegrass 
Kentucky bluegrass 
Needleandthread 
Letterman needlegrass 
Cheatgrass 



Forbs 



Sheep sorrel 

Mint 

Desert parsley 

Penstemon 

Phlox 

Curley-leaved dock 

Goldenrod 

Dandelion 

Western yarrow 

Shrubs 

Big sagebrush 
Silver sagebrush 
Snowberry 
Holly grape 

Map 2-10 shows the location of the six vegetative areas. A 

considerable amount of overlap occurs between the areas. A field 

examination was conducted for the entire study area on July 26, 

1977. 

Threatened or Endangered Plants . Two field investigations were 

conducted in July 1977, to determine if any rare or threatened 

vegetative species occurred in or around the study area. No 

species contained in the list of endangered or threatened plants 

for Idaho in the Federal Register, Vol. 40, No. 127, page 27855, 

or the Federal Register, June 16, 1976, were found in, or adjacent 

to, the study area. 



2-67 






T5S R3W 
S{ NE{ , N-^SE^ ,Sec.6 




1320 



SCALE IN FEET 



VEGETATIVE TYPES 



| f I Aran I Mountain Mahogany / Juniper 
ILZZI Area E Creek Bottoms 
l l I Area HI Protected Areas 



i I Area E Mountain Shrub 



Area ~5L Vegetation Within Town Boundaries 



I I Area "21 Conifer Aspen 
MAP 2-10 
2-68 



Simil onion is endemic to eastern and southern Idaho and Lake 
County, Oregon. It is found quite commonly in the Silver City 
area. However, no specimens were observed on the July 26, 1977 
field investigation. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Each plant community found in the study area provides 
habitat for animals. Some animals may be found in several plant 
communities, whereas others are associated with a single plant 
community. Some wildlife species may be more dependent on human 
structures than on plant communities. 

Mammals commonly observed in the Silver City area are mule 
deer, Belding ground squirrels, golden-manteled squirrels, coy- 
otes, and hoary bats. Species normally not seen due to nocturnal 
activities include bushy-tailed woodrats, deer mice, and house 
mice. Domestic cattle, horses, cats, and dogs are occasional 
inhabitants of the area. 

A variety of song birds can be seen around Silver City. 
Hummingbirds, warblers, and Lazuli buntings are associated with 
the riparian vegetation along Jordan Creek. Mourning doves, 
violet-green swallows, and robins are abundant in the townsite. 
Raptors, such as sparrow hawks, turkey vultures, and red-tailed 
hawks may be observed soaring in the immediate area. 

Garter snakes, rattlesnakes, Western toads, and a variety of 
lizards are common amphibians and reptiles in the area. 



2-69 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

Threatened or Endangered Wildlife . In order to determine the 
presence of threatened or endangered wildlife species, Bureau of 
Land Management wildlife biologists reviewed the List of Endan- 
gered and Threatened Wildlife, conducted an on-site survey, and 
contacted Idaho Department of Fish and Game personnel. None of 
the species on the list are known to occur within the study area. 

The BLM/State of Idaho Sensitive Species List (see Glossary) 
was also reviewed. California bighorn sheep, bobcat, and mountain 
quail are known to occur in or near the area of Silver City. 

The Delamar Baseline Study (Boise State University, 1976) is 
the most recent and thorough review of terrestrial wildlife and 
can be reviewed at the BLM Boise District Office for a more de- 
tailed account of terrestrial wildlife in the Silver City area. 
Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout. Habitat in the upper part of the watershed would be 
classified as being in good condition. Banks are generally sta- 
ble, pool-riffle ratios are favorable, and there is an abundance 
of overhanging vegetative cover. 

To date the most comprehensive water quality assessment in 
the Jordan Creek area is being conducted by a student group as- 
sociated with Boise State University. In a report pertaining to 
the first work (Vincent, et al. , 1976), it was concluded for water 
chemistry that "the data from the study suggests the system sur- 
rounding and flowing through the region was of high quality." 

Also, from preliminary data obtained by the State of Idaho Depart- 
ment of Health and Welfare, it has been shown (Idaho Department of 



2-70 



Health and Welfare, letter, 1977) that on the dates chemical and 
bacterial samples were collected, state water quality standards 
were not violated. 

Based on a field evaluation of the area near the townsite, it 
was assessed that historic mining activities have impacted the 
stream more than current activities. Assuming that habitat alter- 
ation activities in and near the townsite will not occur in the 
future and that State of Idaho water quality standards are com- 
plied with and stream flows are maintained, trout, including the 
red-banded which is on the BLM Sensitive List, will continue to 
exist successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County . Owyhee County is a rural, agricultural county 
located in the southwest corner of Idaho. The development of land 
from rural to urban has been gradual and growth has been confined 
to the Snake River lowlands. Only Homedale and Marsing have shown 
any substantial growth in recent years and contain a mixture of 
residential, commercial, and industrial uses. Industrial develop- 
ment has been limited to mining because of the distance to markets. 
The population of Owyhee County increased one percent between 1950 
and 1960 and .7 percent between 1960 and 1970. This was at a much 
slower rate than the other Boise District counties (Adams, Boise, 
Valley, Washington, Payette, Gem, Ada, Canyon, and Elmore) and the 
State of Idaho. Estimates of 1975 population range from 7,065 



2-71 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

(Idaho Department of Water Resources, 1976) to 7,500 (Bureau of 
Census, 1976). In 1974, the birth and death rates per 100 popu- 
lation were 19.7 and 8.1, respectively. It is believed that the 
large population increase from 1970 to 1975 is due to increased 
employment opportunities in the mining and agricultural sectors. 

In 1970 amd 1975 roughly 52 percent of the population in 
Owyhee County were males while in 1975 slightly less than one-half 
of the population in Idaho were males. In 1975 the median age in 
Owyhee County was 24; the median age for Idaho was 28. An influx 
of younger workers has contributed to lowering the median age in 
Owyhee County (Bureau of Land Management, 1976). 

Between 1960 and 1970 there was a net out-migration from 
Owyhee County and the State Of Idaho. Owyhee County's out-migra- 
tion rate was 75 percent higher than that of the State. This was 
reversed btween 1970 and 1975 when both Owyhee County and Idaho 
experienced net in-migration rates. This was due to increased 
employment opportunities and a reversal of the rural to urban 
trend of the 1960s. 

Owyhee County is one of the least densely populated counties 
in the state with less than one person per square mile. The state 
density was 8.6 persons per square mile in 1970 and 9.9 persons 
per square mile in 1975. 

The median housing value in Owyhee County in 1970 was $9,000; 
in the Boise District it was $11,770. These figures would be 
higher today due, in part, to inflation; just the cost of infla- 



2-72 



tion raised prices 40 percent from 1970 to 1975. In 1975 dollars, 
the median housing value in Owyhee County was $12,625 - in the 
Boise District, $16,511. The median age of houses in Owyhee 
County is 35 years; in the Boise District 36 years; and in the 
state, 33 years. 

Between 1940 and 1974, real per capita personal income in- 
creased by close to 150 percent, the Boise District increased by 
160 percent, and the State of Idaho, by 210 percent. Total per- 
sonal income also increased but not as fast as the Boise District 
or the State. 

In Owyhee County, the civilian labor force has increased from 
2,395 in 1970 to 3,646 in 1975. With this increase in total labor 
force, there has also been a substantial increase in the level of 
unemployment - from 3.1 percent in 1970 to 6.8 percent in 1975. 
But even with this increase in the unemployment rate in Owyhee 
County, this percentage is still below that of the State of Idaho. 
The state figures are: 5.2 percent unemployment in 1970 and 7.3 
percent in 1975. 

Agriculture is the major industry in Owyhee County, employing 
992 out of 2,613 employed people in 1975. Other significant 
sectors are state and local government and trade, employing 308 
and 299, respectively, in 1975. 

According to the June- July 1977 issue of Idaho Image , an 
economic publication of the Division of Tourism and Industrial 
Development, the DeLamar Silver Mine, located ten miles from 



2-73 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

Silver City, is now employing a 125-man crew and is operating 24 
hours a day. It is the country's third largest silver mine and 
the largest open-pit silver mine in the world. 

Of the 2,324 workers in Owyhee County in 1970, 68.0 percent 
of them worked in their county of residence. Of those who did 
commute to work outside their county of residence, 423 of 533 went 
to work in Canyon County. Canyon County also supplied the most 
"in-commuters" to Owhyee County, 314 of 437 who worked in Owyhee 
County but did not live there. 

Land Use Plans, Controls, and Constraints . The Owyhee County 
Comprehensive Land Use Plan was adopted by the County Commission- 
ers in December 1974. Preservation of the archaeological, archi- 
tectural, and cultural history of Owyhee County was identified as 
the historical goal for the County. The plan also encourages the 
preservation of Silver City and discourages any development which 
may have an adverse effect upon Silver City. 

The County of Owyhee, Idaho, has an ordinance known as the 
Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance. This document became effective 
August 14, 1975, and is the final ordinance concerning Silver City 
on file with Owyhee County (Jayo, Barbara, Personal Communicaton, 
1977). The document is: 

An ordinance relating to the preservation of historic 

properties in Silver City, Owyhee County, State of Idaho; 

defining certain terms, providing for special use districts; 

providing for the preservation and non-destruction of 

historic properties; providing for enforcement; providing 



2-74 



for applications for certificates of appropriateness; 
providing for continuance of existing uses; providing for 
maintenance and repair of structures; providing for guide- 
lines; providing for appeals; providing for amending pro- 
cedures; providing for variances; providing for interpreta- 
tion; fees; severability and emergency. 

(Board of County Commissioners, 1975:1) 
The purpose for the ordinance is for "prompting the historic, 
educational, cultural, economic, and general welfare of the people 
through preservation, restoration, and protection of buildings, 
structures and appurtenances, sites, places, and elements of 
historic interests within the area of the City of Silver City, 
County of Owyhee, State of Idaho" (Ibidrl). 

Effectiveness of the Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance . 
After passage of the Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance on August 
14, 1975, it became apparent that some building owners were making 
changes to their structures without first submitting applications 
for approval to the Owyhee County Planning Board. At least four 
such situations were identified in 1976 (Hyslop, Owyhee County 
Preservation Officer, Letter, 1976). In order to give advice on 
historic architecture to the Planning Commission, a Historic 
Advisory Committee was organized in December 1976. During 1977, 
eight applications for building variance were received by the 
planning board. The Historic Advisory Committee had opportunity 



2-75 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

to make recommendations only on two of these applications, and in 

both instances , the recommendations were not followed by the 

planning board. 

It has been stated that: 

"The ordinance has not been as effective, on the surface at 
least, as some would like to see. There have been incorrect 
interpretations of the ordinance. There have been violations 
of the ordinance. There has been confusion as to procedure 
on the part of county employees and county officials." 
(Hyslop, 9/15/77, Letter). 

The planning board now requires that all applications for 
building work be submitted by the second Monday in March of each 
year and that all such applications will be reviewed by the His- 
toric Advisory Committee before approval. This is intended to 
give county officials and the Historic Committee an opportunity to 
process the applications. 
Silver City . 

General . There are 70 major buildings located on public land 
owned by 60 individuals or families on the assessor's tax list. 
The county occupancy rate in 1970 was 3.1 persons per dwelling 
unit; therefore, the population estimate for Silver City is 186 
persons. Only two families live there year-round. Several fam- 
ilies live there full-time in the summer months, June to October, 
and most homeowners spend weekends there. Sixteen building own- 
ers' major residences are in Owyhee County and 56 are in the State 
of Idaho. Seven building owners live out of state as follows: 



2-76 



Arkansas 


1 


California 


2 


Nevada 


I 


Oregon 


2 


Washington 


1 



For a description of the houses, please refer to Appendix B. 
Although there are few public facilities, the Idaho Hotel, which 
is operated as a restaurant and bar, and two gift shops provide 
the basic commercial establishments which serve the general pub- 
lic. Tourism is the principal source of income for the hotel 
owner. For many families, Silver City represents a living his- 
torical location because many of the homeowners' parents and 
grandparents were born there. 

Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers As- 
sociation was formed in the mid-1960s, and is the closest approx- 
imation to a local governmental body. This is an organization of 
building owners formed to provide protection from vandalism, keep 
the town clean, and pull together as a working force for community 
tasks. 

More recently, the association expanded their objective to 
improve the community water system. Resolution of the occupancy 
problem is a concern of the association, but was not a primary 
objective for establishing the organization. Forty of the 60 
current building owners belong to the association. Five members 
of the association reside outside of the State of Idaho. 



2-77 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

They meet annually, usually In July, plus ad hoc meetings. 
The association has a Board of Directors (8 members) that meet 
quarterly. The president, secretary, and treasurer belong to the 
board. 

Funds are collected by annual dues, donations, and benefit 
dances held outside the community. These funds are used for 
payment to a watchman from October 15 to March 15, plus supplies 
and repairs to the water system. Owyhee County contributes $600 
per year to the Taxpayers Association for watchman services. 

Each summer, the association holds work weekends to clean up 
the community and take care of safety hazards. The association 
sponsors a Fourth of July celebration for building owners, friends, 
"old timers", and some "outsiders". 

The Taxpayers Association was responsible for drawing up a 
Historical Preservation Ordinance for the area and the County 
Commissioners passed it in 1975. Only recently, since a building 
inspector and historical preservation officer have been hired, has 
the county had any enforcement capability. 

Social Attitudes and Values . The information in the values 
and attitudes section was gathered by interviewing nine persons 
during seven interviews. The respondents included seven Silver 
City homeowners and two leaders within Owyhee County. The reader 
should be cautioned against extrapolating from this information 
for two reasons. First, those people interviewed were not a 
representative sample of Silver City's population. Second, the 



2-78 



interviews were conducted in an open-ended manner so that the 
residents could fully express themselves. Thus, not all those 
interviewed were asked the same questions. 

Silver City homeowners are primarily weekend visitors. Many 
families are descendents of 19th century Silver City miners. The 
homeowners are committed to preserving Silver City as a historical 
place while adding modern conveniences such as tin roofs to pre- 
vent the buildings from falling down. 

The homeowners feel that they, not any governmental agency, 
have preserved Silver City. Many homeowners feel that they are 
preserving their own heritage. To others, Silver City is just a 
place for a second home. Many would like to see Silver City 
remain unchanged so that their children and grandchildren can 
enjoy it unspoiled. Because many people care about the town, they 
have spent time fixing up their homes and participating in the 
social affairs of the community. 

The fact that several building owners with permanent homes 
located great distances from Silver City make regular visits and 
take a vital interest in participating in social affairs and 
social commitments to the community identifies a cohesive spirit 
within the community. 

Silver City residents place a great deal of value on main- 
taining the pioneer spirit and they show this by trying to main- 
tain the town as it was. Most residents consider the preservation 
of Silver City as an important part of their lives. 



2-79 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

All of the building owners interviewed expressed dissatisfac- 
tion with the Bureau of Land Management's policies regarding 
Silver City. Five of the building owners stated they favored 
purchase of the land their buildings stand on to solve the tres- 
pass situation. One owner expressed the feeling that anything 
less than ownership of the land their building stands on puts them 
in a position where they could be "thrown out" at the whim of a 
land manager or a change in land use plan. Another concern 
expressed is, if their building was destroyed by fire or other 
catastrophy, they would not be allowed to rebuild, unless they 
owned the tract. Assigning their property to heirs is important 
to building owners (three residents expressed this comment) and 
they wish to be in a position of security on this issue. 

Several residents feel that the Owyhee County ordinance 
restricting building improvements in Silver City is adequate and 
Federal protection is not needed. The Silver City Taxpayers 
Association is very critical of the way BLM has handled the Silver 
City occupancy problem. 

Several building owners expressed concern on not being able 
to afford the lease rental plus keeping the building habitable. 

Based upon interviews of Owyhee County leaders, Silver City 
is an unimportant issue to other residents of the county. 

The major issue in the county is the soon-to-be-published 
land use plan. Many county residents would like to see the Silver 



2-80 



City question settled one and for all. They feel it has taken 
too long and has used too much of the county's time. 

Rights of Silver City Taxpayers . Only three buildings in 
Silver City are located on private land. Seventy remaining struc- 
tures are on public land administered by the Bureau of Land Man- 
agement. A legal review has been conducted by the Department of 
the Interior, Office of the Solicitor, Boise, Idaho. It was 
determined that, "Mere occupancy and improvement of public lands, 
no matter how long continued, give no vested right (to the Silver 
City building owners) therein as against the United States or 
purchaser from it 3 Am Jur 2d Adverse Possession § 205." In other 
words, the Silver City building owners have no legal right to the 
public land or the occupation or use of it, until authorization is 
granted for use and occupancy of public land through a permit, 
lease, or land transfer. 

Service Systems . 

(Water Supply System ) . The present water system in Silver 
City is comprised of portions of two original systems that date 
back to the town's conception. Its main purpose was to supply 
water to the Idaho Hotel located on Jordan Street (Idaho Water 
Resource Board, April 1972). The water originates from a spring 
located on the Holy Terror mining claim on Florida Mountain. The 
spring water rights are filed in the name of the Silver City Tax- 
payers Association (Orton, Clarence, Interview, September 6, 
1977). The Association is responsible for maintenance and repair 
of the water supply system. Water from the spring flows in a pipe 



2-81 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

about one-quarter mile to a circular, wooden-stave, 18,000-gallon 
storage tank. The pipeline continues from the tank to the hotel, 
with a main lateral running along Washington Street. There are 
approximately 30 building owners hooked into the water system, and 
up until this year, a faucet was located near Clarence Orton's 
house for public use. (Orton, Clarence, Interview, August 24, 
1977). 

Due to the age, poor condition, and recent winter freezing 
damages to the water system, the Silver City Taxpayers Association 
and some other building owners have replaced segments of the 
original galvanized steel pipe with PVC and rubber pipe to upgrade 
the water lines. The wooden storage tank leaks and the taxpayers 
intend to replace it in 1978 with a steel tank. Substantial water 
savings could be gained by doing this which would make more water 
available to the building owners and the public. By providing 
volunteer labor, the Taxpayers Association estimates that the 
water system can be completely replaced for about $10,000 (Orton, 
Clarence, Interview, August 24, 1977). Since the water system is 
located on public land, the Taxpayers Association must obtain a 
permit from BLM for any earth disturbing activities. 

A water sample taken from the storage tank on July 31, 1977, 
by the Southwest District Health Department, showed that the water 
was contaminated by coliform bacteria. Residents were advised of 
the problem and food service establiments were instructed to 



2-82 



discontinue use of the water. A sample taken on August 18, when 
the spring flow was higher, showed no contamination (Southwest 
District Health Department, Letter, September 6, 1977). 

There are also three other wells in town. They have in the 
past been used by several families but are not apparently used for 
domestic purposes. Many of the building owners bring water with 
them for drinking when visiting Silver City (Hoagland, Interview, 
September 7, 1977). 

(Sanitation System ). With the exception of one water- 
carried sewage disposal system which utilizes a septic tank and 
drainfield, all the building owners in Silver City have outdoor 
privies. The building owners in Silver City are responsible for 
maintenance and repair of their sanitation systems. In August 
1977, the Southwest District Health Department inspected most of 
the outhouses in Silver City for compliance with state health 
laws. Approximately 15 privies were found to meet state regula- 
tions or require minor maintenance to be in compliance, and about 
30 units needed major repairs or new facilities (Southwest District 
Health Department, Letter, September, 6, 1977). 

The Health Department identified conditions that violate 
state health standards. Much of the ground under Silver City is 
coarse-textured or granular and quite pervious, which allows 
sewage to readily leach through the soil substrate. This situa- 
tion, coupled with the fact that most outhouses have unsealed 
earth pits, allows sewage to leach downslope toward Jordan Creek. 



2-83 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

A number of privies are adjacent to the creek and over time may 
contribute to sewage pollution of the stream (see Water Quality 
section). In general, many of the outhouses are not rat- and 
rodent-tight, giving access to vermin. 

The BLM has two toilets in the study area which have sealed 
vaults that are periodically pumped out. The Health Department 
considered them to be in compliance with state law but noted that 
they were not fly- or rodent-tight. They are heavily used by 
tourists (Southwest District Health Department, Letter, September 
6, 1977). 

(Solid Waste Disposal ) . The BLM has a number of trash 
cans at the campground next to town and at undeveloped spots along 
Jordan Creek. These cans are used by the public and emptied by 
the BLM summer fire crew. 

The building owners burn combustible solid waste in their 
wood-burning stoves and take the rest home or dispose of it at the 
Owyhee County metal bin at Murphy. 

Occasionally litter has accumulated in Silver City after 
organized events such as the annual Idaho Cattlemen's Association 
meeting. Some building owners have complained that the litter was 
not picked up by the responsible people. 

(Fire Pr otection) . There is no formal fire fighting 
organization in Silver City. The Silver City Taxpayers Associ- 
ation has encouraged building owners to have fire extinguishers 
and many individuals have them in their structures (Orton, Clar- 



2-84 



ence, Interview, September 6, 1977). There is a threat of struc- 
ture fires mainly during the heavy-use, dry summer months. The 
old wood of the buildings is dry, much of it unpainted and, theo- 
retically, many structures could be destroyed in short order if a 
fire got out of control. A fire wiped out one whole block in 
1908. The BLM maintains a three-man fire crew in the area during 
the summer, but these personnel are trained only in range fire 
suppression. This crew would not be authorized to enter a burning 
structure but could be utilized to check the spread of fire to 
surrounding ground. In 1973, C^M Hill Company prepared a pro- 
posal for the Silver City Taxpayers Association concerning a fire 
protection system. They pointed out the need for the community to 
purchase a portable pump that could be used at known water sour- 
ces, training of a volunteer fire department, inspections to 
identify fire hazards, and development of a new water supply and 
water distribution system with hydrants and hoses (CH„M Hill, 
Letter, September 13, 1973). 

(Law Enforcement ) . Since Silver City is unincorporated, 
the community has no law enforcement agency. The Owyhee County 
Sheriff, located in the county seat of Murphy, has the respon- 
sibility for enforcement of county and state laws. The BLM has 
the responsibility to enforce federal rules and regulations estab- 
lished by the Organic Act. During various periods in the past, a 
watchman has been hired by the Taxpayers Association to help 
protect the community from vandalism, mainly during the winter and 
spring months. 



2-85 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

(Electrical Supply ) . There is no power line into Silver 
City. One was taken out in the early 1940s when the county seat 
was moved to Murphy. Electricity is supplied to several home- 
owners and the hotel by generator power plants. In addition, some 
residences use propane gas for heaters, refrigerators, and lights. 

(Telephone Service ). There are four telephones- in Silver 
City. They are located in the Idaho Hotel and in three residences 
(Orton, Clarence, Interview, September 6, 1977). 



DESCRIPTION OF THE FUTURE ENVIRONMENT 
WITHOUT THE PROPOSED ACTION 



The following section describes the possible future environ- 
ment of the Silver City ES area at the year 1997 if the proposed 
action is not implemented. 

Cultural Resource 

There are presently 70 major buildings in Silver City. 
Twenty-seven (44 percent) buildings have major historic or archi- 
tectural significance; 38 (56 percent) buildings contribute to the 
historic setting; and five buildings are nonhistoric. 

Nine buildings are in need of immeditate repair by the build- 
ing owners to prevent their loss. Five of these buildings have 
major historic and architectural significance. If this repair is 



2-86 



not done, these buildings can be expected to be lost in the future. 
Based on past action, it is highly likely that building altera- 
tions which are not in the keeping with historic setting will 
continue to be made. In addition, new structures not consistent 
with the historic scene will be constructed. 

Based on past activities, it is assumed that extensive and 
irreparable destruction of Silver City's historical archaeological 
resources will continue. Without proper management of Silver 
City's archaeological resource, it would not be possible to cur- 
tail the continuous destruction of these fragile scientific, 
historical, and interpretive values. The three major effects to 
the archaeological resource are expected from the following ac- 
tivities: (1) amateur archaeology and bottle-collecting; (2) 
extensive parking, camping, and picnicking; and (3) excavation in 
connection with the maintenance and repair of existing structures. 

Land Use 

Livestock Grazing . The future environment without the proposal 

would result in the continuation of the present livestock grazing 

program. 

Mining . Mining activities within the immediate vicinity of Silver 

City ceased over 50 years ago. A 1973 evaluation of the mineral 

potential concluded that the mineral values which once occurred 

have been mined out and that there is little or no potential for 

new discoveries (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1973). 



2-87 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

Recreation . The principal recreation resource in the study area 
is the historic mining settlement of Silver City. This historic 
community is expected to attract sightseers. In time, the old 
buildings and ruins should increase in value as a historic 
resource. 

The 1972 Comprehensive Rural Water and Sewage Plan for Owyhee 
County estimates that 40,000 tourists will visit Silver City 
annually by 1990. This projected increase in public visitation is 
expected to generate a greater demand for improved public services. 

The lack of visitor services also places a burden on the 
building owners since they are often asked for help by visitors 
experiencing car trouble, people who need information about the 
area and sometimes food and shelter. 

The fact that so many people will visit the area also con- 
flicts with the building owners' desire "to get away from it all" 
during a visit to their second home in the mountains. 

Uncontrolled vistor use reduces the value of the area because 
of littering, erosion from indiscriminate vehicle use, congestion 
caused by vehicle traffic, cars parked blocking the streets and 
building entrances, etc. The presence of all types of vehicles 
(cars, pickups, campers, and off-road vehicles) represents the 
most intrusive element on the historic scene. It is almost im- 
possible to photograph the buildings or the scene without having a 
modern vehicle in the picture. 



2-88 



Vistors are eager to collect souvenirs as a record of their 
visit to Silver City. This practice results in the removal of 
objects of historical value. 

The ability to appreciate and enjoy a visit to Silver City is 
reduced by large crowds of people, the vehicles and associated 
higher noise levels. 

Aesthetics 

In time, many of the scars from past mining activity will be 
rehabilitated naturally by vegetation. The aging of the buildings 
and the contrast with the natural elements will continue to at- 
tract sightseers. 

Increased visitation would create more people noise, conges- 
tion, and litter. 

Soils 

The poorly developed soils of the study area would continue 
to be disturbed by the activities associated with building modi- 
fication and repair. This disturbance is expected to be limited 
to the construction activities associated with the buildings. 

Vegetation 

The present vegetative setting has evolved under the same 
conditions that have existed in Silver City for the past 50-70 
years. The vegetative community should continue to progress along 
successional stages at the present rate. The major change that 



2-89 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

could be expected would be the general increase in Douglas fir, 
juniper, and mountain mahogany in those areas which were disturbed 
during the mining and construction phases of Silver City's his- 
tory. These three tree species are becoming re-established in 
their original areas. Over a period of time, these trees would 
reach maturity and would actually dominate the vegetative setting 
on some sites. The vegetation within the town would remain much 
the same as it is today with a mixture of native vegetation and 
domesticated ornamental species. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Probably little change in wildlife habitat or wildlife 
species diversity will occur in the future. Some species diver- 
sity may be slightly reduced due to intolerance of some wildlife 
species to increased human activities. 

Fishery . Fishery habitat of Jordan Creek in the Silver City study 
area is presently classified as being in good condition. Assuming 
that stream flows are maintained, water quality standards are met, 
and habitat alterations do not occur in the future, the fisheries 
resource should continue to be successful. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County . By 1995, the total population of Owyheee County is 
projected to be approximately 10,856 persons, a 54 percent in- 
crease from 1975. Males will make up 51 percent of the popula- 
tion. Employment will increase to 2,959, a 13 percent increase 



2-90 



from 1975. It is anticipated that Silver City will remain much 
the same as in 1977 with the same number of homes and a similar 
maximum population of 186 persons. By 1995, the per capita income 
in Owyhee County will be $4,600 in current dollars, an increase of 
50 percent since 1974. 

The Owyhee County Comprehensive Land Use Plan is expected to 
be revised by the Ida-Ore Regional Planning and Development As- 
sociation. Although the Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance can be 
changed by the Owyhee County Commissioners, there are no plans to 
modify the zoning ordinance. The effectiveness of the ordinance 
is not expected to change. 

Silver City . Visitor use is expected to increase. This, in turn, 
could create a demand for additional services and introduce com- 
mercial activities into Silver City. Some road improvements may 
also increase visitor use by making access easier. The services 
demanded will include food and beverages, campgrounds, trash 
removal, automotive services, and public restroom facilities. 

There are no indications that the community character of 
Silver City will change in the future. 

Silver City residents are deeply attached to their homes. 
Most families use their homes as weekend retreats, four families 
live there full-time in the summer, and only two families live 
there in the town all year. The residents feel that only their 
care and concern has kept Silver City alive through the years. 
They do not want outside historical groups or BLM coming in to 



2-91 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

control the town now. Many would like to know where the his- 
torical groups were 15 to 20 years ago when the town was being 
vandalized. 

Residents feel that gross commercialization would destroy the 
town and many want to keep Silver City as is so their children and 
grandchildren can enjoy the town unspoiled. Many people approve 
of the concept of planning, especially when it concerns Silver 
City. The residents feel that the building permit system is 
finally working and when homes are rebuilt or new additions con- 
structed, old wood is used in the outside to maintain the "his- 
torical integrity" of the structures. 

The residents organized a non-profit organization and hired a 
watchman to protect the town from vandals. Not all the taxpayers 
are members of the non-profit organization and there is disagree- 
ment on the amount of commercialization in Silver City. Some do 
not want any and others want some essential services for tourists. 
Most homeowners regard their lifestyle as special and unique and 
want to keep it that way. Many of the disagreements between 
residents over the town go back 20 to 30 years or more and, in 
some cases, are family or neighbor feuds. 

Among the residents of Owyhee County, Silver City is not a 
very important issue relative to the other problems facing the 
county like land use planning. County residents want the Silver 
City issue to be resolved so they can get on with other business. 
They feel it has taken up too much of their time. 



2-92 



Visitors to Silver City are interested in the historic values 
of the town and would like to see those values maintained. Many 
are opposed to commercialization but would like to see some tour- 
ist services. 

Although the Silver City building owners occupy and use 
public lands, they have no legal right to do so. Continued un- 
authorized occupancy and use is expected in the future unless BLM 
acts. 

The Silver City Taxpayers Association is expected to continue 
to repair and replace sections of pipe in the water supply sys- 
tems. The taxpayers want to replace the storage tank during 1978. 
Eventually, the entire water system will likely be replaced so 
that there will be more efficient use of the water for the build- 
ing owners and public visitors. Both the water quality and the 
system itself will be periodically checked by the SDHD to assure 
compliance with state and county health laws. An enhancement of 
Silver City's domestic water system can be anticipated in the 
future. 

From recent inspections by the SDHD, it was found that the 
majority of outhouses in Silver City do not meet acceptable sewage 
standards. The SDHD has made recommendations to building owners 
on how to upgrade their facilities to meet state and county regu- 
lations. Through continued monitoring by the SDHD, sewage dispo- 
sal conditions are expected to improve as building owners comply 
with health regulations. 



2-93 



DESCRIPTION OF THE ENVIRONMENT 

Fire protection, law enforcement, electrical supply, and 
telephone services would be expected to continue at the same level 
if the proposed action was not followed. The number of the Silver 
City building owners would probably stay static along with their 
desires for these services. 



2-94 



Chapter 3 

Environmental Impacts of the Proposed Action 



*SlS ! ' : %, 










■' : .,: , -^ / - -/ * 













OLD POWDER HOUSE 



INTRODUCTION 

The building owners of Silver City occupy public land without 
authorization from the BLM. Granting of a proposed lease would 
authorize this occupancy. The historical, architectural, and 
archaeological resources of Silver City have local and regional 
significance. This resource is fragile and nonrenewable. 

ASSUMPTIONS AND ANALYSIS GUIDELINES 

Impacts discussed in this chapter are restricted to the 5.5 
acres of public land proposed to be leased unless otherwise spec- 
ified (see Map 3-1). Short-term impacts discussed in this state- 
ment are those expected to last less than five years. Long-term 
impacts are those which would still be evident in the year 2000. 

Each resource is analyzed according to the following assump- 
tions: (a) tracts of public land within Silver City would be 
leased only to proven building owners; (b) only tracts of public 
land which are occupied by existing buildings would be leased; 
other public land within Silver City would be retained in federal 
ownership; (c) building owners would accept and would comply with 
the lease; and (d) BLM would insure compliance with the lease. 



3-1 




SILVER CITY 

PROPOSED LEASED TRACTS 
MAP NO. 3-1 



IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . Seventy privately owned buildings occupy 
public land without authorization from BLM within Silver City, 
Idaho. Although most buildings have been modified by the building 
owners in some manner, 65 buildings have historic value. Com- 
pliance with the terms of the proposed lease would control or 
prevent intrusive modification (maintenance, alterations, and 
rehabilitation) by the building owners to the existing buildings. 
The overall long-term impacts of implementing the proposed lease 
would be to prevent further intrusive modification to the historic 
buildings and the removal of ruins and artifacts remaining from 
the historic period. This action would help protect and preserve 
the historic integrity of the community. 

Historic Archaeology . Of the 70 proposed leased tracts surveyed 
in 1977, 22 tracts indicated a very high potential for both sci- 
entific data and public interpretation, 40 tracts showed scant 
surface evidence or extremely low potential for scientific data, 3 
tracts had so much surface evidence that there is a potential for 
loss of scientific and interpretative data, and 4 tracts could not 
be adequately inspected. 

Compliance with the terms and conditions of the proposed 
lease would reduce or control the following on-going impacts to 
the archaeological resource: (1) amateur archaeological and 



3-3 



ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

bottle-collecting activity; (2) excavation in connection with the 
maintenance and repair of existing structures; (3) use of materi- 
als from ruins for maintenance and repair of existing structures 
or construction of new structures. However, the amount of control 
or reduction is unknown. 

In spite of the precautions taken by the building owners and 
BLM, continued occupancy of the proposed lease tracts would per- 
petuate disturbance to the archaeological resource which cannot be 
quantified. Any archaeological site which is disturbed would lose 
some of its archaeological integrity if not its outright scien- 
tific and interpretative values. Once disturbed, that portion of 
a site is lost to future field studies and interpretations. 

Under the proposed lease, the archaeological resource would, 
in the long run, be impacted less (see Chapter 2). 

Land Use 

Grazing . The proximity of the proposed tracts to the human 
dwellings and activities completely negates the value for grazing. 
Implementing the proposal would result in no changes to the graz- 
ing resource. 

Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. The 
history of the mining district indicates that rich ore occurred 
only near the surface and is mined out. There is little or no 
potential for new discoveries. A 1974 withdrawal prevents mineral 
location and entry under the mining laws. Since the proposed 



3-4 



lease is subject to existing valid mining rights, there are no 
known quantifiable impacts to the mineral resource or mining. 
Recreation . The primary recreation value is the sightseeing and 
photographic opportunities associated with the historic buildings. 
By complying with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease, 
the building owners would maintain the historic buildings. This 
maintenance will assure protection of these buildings as an im- 
portant aspect of the sightseeing opportunity. 

Since the lease does not provide for public access across the 
leased tracts, the public's opportunity to examine and photograph 
buildings, foundations, and other features up close could be 
denied. 

The control of any commercial facilities by BLM, via con- 
cessionaire contracts as a lease stipulation, would help provide 
quality visitor services. 

Aesthetics . The characteristic landscape is one of total modifi- 
cation because of the mining activity and settlement in Silver 
City. However, the modified landscape, because of its historic 
significance, is an important attraction. 

Compliance with the lease requirements pertaining to building 
modifications, earth-disturbing activities, erection of signs and 
exhibits, location of generating plants and gas-powered genera- 
tors, would assure that the historic integrity of the town is not 
intruded upon. Compliance with lease stipulations to regulate the 
use of heavy equipment would help reduce noise levels. 



3-5 



ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

The development of acceptable sewage disposal systems and the 
removal of solid waste would reduce odor problems. 
Soil . The soils are poorly developed and highly porous. Com- 
pliance with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease would 
require a short-term increase in activities such as construction 
and maintenance of water and sewage facilities that would cause 
short-term soil disturbance (less than one-half acre) in the 
immediate vicinity. 

The magnitude of soil disturbance is unknown. The long-term 
impacts are considered to be negligible. 

Vegetation . Many domestic and ornamental species such as wild- 
rye, bluegrass, elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and currants 
inhabit the yards and gardens. Compliance with the terms and 
conditions of the proposed lease would require a short-term in- 
crease in activities such as sewer and water line construction 
that would result in localized surface disturbance (less than one- 
half acre total) . Vegetation would be removed in the immediate 
work areas where heavy traffic or excavation is required. In most 
cases, the surface disturbance would consist of construction of a 
shallow trench in which to lay a small-diameter pipe (one inch to 
four inch), for a water line. In addition, approximately 50 small 
pits would also be constructed to install vault toilets. These 
disturbed areas would be small in size totaling less than one-half 
acre. The impacts to vegetation would be short-term. There are 
no known long-term impacts to the vegetative resource. 



3-6 



Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted by the proposed 
action are songbirds, raptors, and small rodents that either are 
partially or wholly dependent upon human structures for a part or 
all of their life requirements (food, water, and cover). 

Since it is assumed that the proposed action, due to com- 
pliance with stipulations of the lease, may initially require 
lessees to spend more time at their dwellings and in the immediate 
area of Silver City to fulfill maintenance stipulations, some 
impacts to local wildlife would occur. The impacts of human- 
wildlife interactions would vary depending on amount of increased 
activity and the tolerance of individual wildlife species to human 
activities. Since neither of the above can presently be quanti- 
fied, impacts are discussed in generalities. 

Wildlife species normally associated with old buildings may 
be permanently displaced or may temporarily evacuate their niche, 
depending on maintenance or construction activities. Bird nesting 
and perching areas used by swallows, bats, and songbirds may be 
temporarily removed. Rodent nests and hiding places used by house 
mice and rats may also be eliminated. 

Everyday activities by humans, resulting in loud noises such 
as from cars, generators, firearms, construction, and movement in 
critical areas, such as riparian zones, would permanently or 
temporarily displace wildlife species. Dependency on human ac- 
tivities for food and cover would domesticate a few bird and 



3-7 



ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

rodent species, making them vulnerable to a wild environment when 
humans are not present. 

Vegetation disturbance would temporarily eliminate habitat. 
Hiding cover, space requirements, and food sources for rodents 
would be affected, as well as nest sites for ground-nesting birds. 
Although small areas of disturbance seem minor, consolidation of 
habitat removal may displace animals. 

Long-term impacts to terrestrial wildlife are not antici- 
pated. Short-term impacts are limited to human-wildlife inter- 
actions. Stipulations attached to leases will require maintenance 
and repair of structures. These activities will temporarily 
displace or remove sites presently utilized for feeding, nesting, 
resting, or cover. Wildlife affected will relocate to other 
buildings or natural habitat suitable for meeting the species' 
life functions. 

Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1). The habitat is in good condition. Assuming 
that habitat alteration activities in and near the townsite would 
not occur in the future and that the State of Idaho water quality 
standards are met and stream flows are maintained, trout, in- 
cluding the red-banded trout, would continue to survive 
successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 



which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 
This is an organization of building owners. 

The proposed action would not change the historical character 
of Silver City. Compliance with the lease stipulations for water 
and sanitation systems could create a need for greater cooperation 
among building owners which may increase social cohesiveness in 
the Silver City Taxpayers Association or a similar organization. 

No change in numbers of visitors to Silver City would be 
anticipated. Therefore, no changes are expected to income derived 
from commercial activities in the community. 

Consequently, it is impossible to predict the changing value 
of buildings that could result from the proposed action. The 
typical residential tract would be leased at fair market value 
(see Appendix A). 

Social Attitudes and Values . Although the proposed lease offers 
tenure to the building owners, is transferable to heirs, is re- 
newable, and the lease rental is not expected to be unreasonable 
in terms of market value, building owners would not feel secure in 
an action of this kind based upon interviews identified in 
Chapter 2. 

Some owners may not be able to pay the lease rental. This 
could force some owners to sell their property. The insecure 
feeling caused by a tenure settlement by lease may motivate some 
owners to sell their buildings. Depending upon the individual 
owners, the loss would be either loss of a second (recreational) 



3-9 



ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 

property or loss of a family heirloom. It is difficult to predict 
if any or how many owners would propose to sell. 

Building maintenance costs may be greater with the proposed 
lease than at present. 

Some building owners are so opposed to a lease that they have 
threatened to remove their buildings. 
Servic e Syst ems 

Water Supply . The present water supply system in Silver City 
is comprised of portions of two original systems that date back to 
the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are served by 
an 18 ,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. 

Compliance with lease stipulations would require that any 
domestic water supply system used in Silver City meet state re- 
quirements. The Southwest District Health Department (SDHD) has 
compliance authority at Silver City and would determine whether 
the water meets state and county health standards. If deficien- 
cies are located in the system or water quality is found to be 
substandard, the SDHD would require the building owners to correct 
them. BLM lease stipulations support SDHD in assuring that the 
water in Silver City would be safe and potable. 

Small scale repairs may be completed by the Silver City 
Taxpayers Association or other organizations. If remedial steps 
require large capital outlays, building owners may have to seek 
financial assistance from Owyhee County or the State of Idaho. 

Sanitation System . With the exception of one water-borne 
septic tank, all the buildings have outdoor privies. Many of 



3-10 



these privies need repair or maintenance to meet state standards. 
Compliance with the proposed lease stipulations would require that 
each lessee have a sewage disposal that meets county and state 
health regulations. Inspection and compliance authority lie with 
SDHD. The lessee would be required to correct and maintain these 
outhouses to comply with lease stipulations. Sewage facilities 
would be inspected periodically by the SDHD to assure continued 
compliance with State law. 

The SDHD revealed that the majority of outhouses do not meet 
state and county health standards. Deficiencies were identified - 
many of the structures allowed access to vermin and most facili- 
ties did not have watertight, sealed vaults underneath. This 
enhances the probability of human sewage leaching into Jordan 
Creek, especially from the outhouses near the stream. 

Improvement of the water supply system, sewage and solid 
waste disposal as required by the lease would provide a healthier, 
more sanitary and safer condition for Silver City visitors and 
occupants. 



3-11 



Chapter 4 
Mitigation Measures 



ilD W 






/ 



A; 



Mitigation measures are covered by lease stipulations 
in the proposed action and would be required if the proposal 
is implemented. 



4-1 



Chapter 5 

Unavoidable Adverse Impacts 



m 






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|T ')f S':J -v 



OWYHEE BREWRY VAT 



IMPACT ANALYSIS 

(Adverse impacts are identified in the same sequence as in 
Chapter 3.) 

Cultural Resource 

Archaeology . In spite of the precautions taken during construc- 
tion activities any site which is disturbed will lose some of its 
historic integrity if not its scientific and interpretive values. 
Once disturbed, it remains so. Once destroyed, that portion of a 
site is lost to future studies and interpretations. 

Land Use 

Recreation . Most recreation opportunities involve passive ac- 
tivities such as sightseeing, photography, and historic interpre- 
tation which are directly associated with the sensory quality of 
the cultural resources; the buildings, foundations, old mining 
equipment, tailings piles, etc. Part of the visitor experience is 
to look closely at these features and even touch them in some 
cases. The quality of a recreation experience could be reduced if 
an individual is denied access across a leased tract, and loses 
his chance to examine the features. 



5-1 



UNAVOIDABLE ADVERSE IMPACTS 



Aesthetics 

There would be periods when the noise levels associated with the 
construction activities intrude on the historic scene. This 
impact is considered to be a short-term adverse impact. 

Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result of 
maintenance work. Rehabilitation would restore native vegetation. 
Routine maintenance would improve the vegetative setting. 

Undesirable vegetation such as curly cup gumweed , cheatgrass, 
and annual weeds would become established after rehabilitation. 
After establishment, these species often increase until they 
dominate the vegetative stand. 

Wildlife 

Human/wildlife interactions cannot be avoided and the degree 
of interaction cannot be quantified. Some wildlife species would 
leave the area when human activities reach intolerant levels. 
Wildlife species such as ground squirrels and chipmunks can be 
tolerant of human activity and would have behavior patterns and 
habits, such as a dependency for food, changed as a result of 
human interactions. 



5-2 



Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Building owners would not feel secure in their tenure on the 
land under a lease situation. 

The lease rental could be a hardship to some owners. This 
may cause them to sell their building. If the property is a 
family heirloom, the loss is greater than if the property is just 
a second home for recreational purposes. 

Maintenance costs may be greater to meet the requirements of 
lease stipulations than at present. 

Compliance to state health regulations concerning water and 
sewer systems may require an undetermined outlay of money. 



5-3 



Chapter 6 

Relationship Between Local Short Term 
Uses of Mans Environment and 
Maintenance and Enhancement of Long 
Term Productivity 




J 



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m 



Wm% 



Silver City buildings have occupied public land since the 
1860's. This occupancy has prevented other land uses. The pro- 
posed lease would allow the building owners to continue occupancy 
of public land and would not change the present land use. 

The proposed action does not involve any known losses to the 
long-term productivity. 



6-1 



Chapter 7 

Irreversible and Irretrievable 

Commitment of Resources 






CATHOLIC CHURCH 



Building maintenance and construction associated with the 
improvement of toilets and the water system would require a 
commitment of materials including gravel, sand, cement, steel, and 
lumber. These basic materials are partially reclaimable. How- 
ever, their commitment to the project would be considered long- 
term and irreversible. 

The building owners would expend manpower, capital, and 
energy to maintain and construct the buildings and additions. The 
BLM would expend capital and time to administer the proposal. 
This commitment is considered irretrievable. 

Construction activities may disturb the surface and destroy 
cultural artifacts or features before being halted. Although 
accidental, this possible loss of cultural materials would be 
irreversible. The opportunity for future study of the material 
would also be lost. 

The proposal would also perpetuate the use of the land as 

sites for structures and this land would be unavailable for other 

uses for the life of the project. 

Estimated annual funding to administer proposed action: 
BLM $20,000 

Southwest District Health 

Department 2,000 

$22,000 

Estimated annual use of fuel resources to administer 
proposed action: 

BLM 120 gallons gasoline 

Southwest District Health 

Department 20 " " 

140 gallons gasoline 



7-1 



Chapter 8 

Alternatives to the Proposed Action 




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....■■■■ ^S» 



IDAHO HOTEL 



INTRODUCTION 

This chapter focuses on seven alternatives to the proposed 
action. These alternatives are other ways of preserving and 
protecting a regionally recognized historic site as well as re- 
solving the unauthorized use of public land. The alternatives 
are: (1) no action; (2) sale of public land to building owners; 
(3) sale of public land to a nonprofit organization; (4) lease 
public land to a nonprofit organization; (5) federal acquisition 
of all buildings and lease to seller; (6) federal acquisition of 
four historic buildings; and (7) special legislation. 

PROCEDURE 

Impacts will be identified for each alternative, followed by 
a discussion of the mitigation measures and the adverse impacts 
that cannot be avoided. Table 8-1 summarizes the impacts from 
each alternative. 



5-1 



TABLE 8-1 
SUMMARY OF ANTICIPATED IMPACTS 



RESOURCE 


TYPE 

OF 

IMPACT 


PROPOSED 
ACTION 


SALE OF PUBLIC LAND 
TO SILVER CITY 
BUILDING OWNERS 


SALE OF PUBLIC LAND 
TO NON-PROFIT 
ORGANIZATIONS 




ALTERNATIVE ?. 


ALTERNATIVE 1 


CULTURAL 
RESOURCE 


ADVERSE 


Archaeological sites 
would continue to be 
disturbed. 


Archaeological sites 
would continue to be 
disturbed. 


Archaeological sites 
would continue to be 
disturbed. 


BENEFICIAL 


Ongoing impacts to the 
archaeological re- 
source would be re- 
duced or controlled. 
Historic buildings 
protected from intru- 
sive alteration. 


Ongoing impacts to the 
archaeological re- 
source would be con- 
trolled. Historic 
buildings protected 
from intrusive altera- 
tions. 


Ongoing impacts to the 
archaeological re- 
source would be con- 
trolled. Historic 
buildings protected 
from intrusive altera- 
tions. 


LAND 


ADVERSE 






• 


USE 


BENEFICIAL 


No quantifiable 
change in grazing; no 
impact to mining. 


No quantifiable 
change in grazing; no 
impact to mining. 


No quantifiable 
change in grazing; no 
impact to mining. 




ADVERSE 


Public access on 
tracts could be de- 
nied, reducing recre- 
ation experience. 


Public access on 
tracts could be de- 
nied, reducing recre- 
ation experience. 


Public access on 
tracts could be de- 
nied, reducing recre- 
ation experience. 


RECREATION 


BENEFICIAL 


Historic integrity 
would be maintained; 
overall recreational 
experience improved. 


Historic integrity 
would be maintained; 
overall recreational 
experience improved. 


Historic integrity 
would be maintained; 
overall recreational 
experience improved. 


AESTHETICS 


ADVERSE 


Short-term increase 
in noise levels asso- 
ciated with increased 
construction activi- 
ties. 


Short-term increase 
in noise levels asso- 
ciated with increased 
construction activi- 
ties. 


Short-term increase 
in noise levels asso- 
ciated with increased 
construction activi- 
ties. 




BENEFICIAL 


Scene kept in harmony 
with historic setting. 


Scene kept in harmony 
with historic setting. 


Scene kept in harmony 
with historic setting. 


SOILS 


ADVERSE 


Localized short-term 
disturbances of less 
than one-half acre. 


Localized short-term 
disturbances of less 
than one-half acre. 


Localized short-term 
disturbances of less 
than one-half acre. 




BENEFICIAL 


None 


None 


None 


VEGETATION 


ADVERSE 


Localized short-term 
disturbances of less 
than one-half acre. 


Localized short-term 
disturbances of less 
than one-half acre. 


Localized short-term 
disturbances of less 
than one-half -acre. 




BENEFICIAL 


None 


None 


None 


WILDLIFE 


ADVERSE 


Wildlife/human inter- 
action. 


Wildlife/human inter- 
action. 


Wildlife/human inter- 
action. 




BENEFICIAL 


None 


None 


None 


SOCIO- 
ECONOMIC 
CHARACTER- 
ISTICS 


ADVERSE 


Building owners still 
insecure; rental cost 
may force sale of 
building for some. 
Maintenance costs may 
be greater. 


Building owners may 
not be able to pur- 
chase tract & have to 
sell building. Main- 
tenance costs may be 
greater. 


Building owners still 
insecure; rental cost 
may force sale of 
building for some. 
Maintenance costs may 
be greater. Third party 
may cause greater frus- 
tration. 




BENEFICIAL 


Possible increase in 
community cohesive- 
ness; improvement of 
water & sewage system. 


Owyhee County acquire 
additional $2,400 tax 
revenue. Buildings 
could increase in val- 
ue. Building owners 
secure. 


Owyhee County acquire 
additional $2,400 tax 
revenue. 



Note: 



Alternative 1, No Action, 
not evaluated. 



is not considered to be a viable alternative and is 



3-2 



TABLE 8-1 

SUMMARY OF ANTICIPATED IMPACTS 
(Continued) 



RESOURCE 



TYPE 

OF 

IMPACT 



LEASE OF PUBLIC LAND 
TO NON-PROFIT 
ORGANIZATIONS 



ALTERNATIVE 4 



FEDERAL ACQUISITION 

OF ALL BUILDINGS AND 

LEASE TO SELLER 



ALTERNATIVE 5 



Archaeological sites would con- 
tinue to be disturbed. 



Archaeological sites would con- 
tinue to be disturbed. 



ADVERSE 



CULTURAL 
RESOURCE 



BENEFICIAL 



Ongoing impacts to the archaeolo- 
gical resource would be controlled 
or reduced. Prevent future in- 
trusive modification to buildings. 



Ongoing impacts to the archaeolo- 
gical resource would be controlled 
or reduced. Protect historic 
buildings on the tracts. 



ADVERSE 



LAND 
USE 



BENEFICIAL 



No quantifiable change in grazing; 
no impact to mining. 



No quantifiable change in grazing; 
no impact to mining. 



ADVERSE 



Public access on tracts could be 
denied, reducing recreation 
experience. 



None 



RECREATION 



BENEFICIAL 



Historic integrity would be main- 
tained; overall recreational ex- 
perience improved. 



Historic integrity would be main- 
tained; overall recreational ex- 
perience improved. BLM would have 
capability for displays & exhibits 
providing high-quality visitor 
experience. 



ADVERSE 



Short-term increase in noise 
levels associated with increased 
construction activities. 



Short-term increase in noise 
levels associated with increased 
construction activities. 



AESTHETICS 



BENEFICIAL 



Scene kept in harmony with 
historic setting. 



Scene kept in harmony with 
historic setting. 



Localized short-term disturbances 
of less than one-half acre. 



ADVERSE 



Localized short-term disturbances 
of less than one-half acre. 



SOILS 



BENEFICIAL 



None 



None 



ADVERSE 



Localized short-term disturbances 
of less than one-half acre. 



Localized short-term disturbance 
of less than one-half acre. 



VEGETATION 



BENEFICIAL 



None 



None 



ADVERSE 



Wildlife/human interaction. 



Wildlife/human interaction. 



WILDLIFE 



BENEFICIAL 



None 



None 



Building owners still insecure; 
rental cost may force sale of 
building for some. Maintenance 
costs may be greater. Third party 
may cause greater frustration. 



Impact upon building owners from 
loss of buildings. Rental cost may 
be too high for some owners and lose 
contact with building. Owyhee 
County would lose $870 in tax revenue 
per year. 



ADVERSE 



SOCIO- 
ECONOMIC 
CHARACTER- 
ISTICS 



Improvement of water and sewage 
systems. 



Improvement of water and sewage 
systems. 



BENEFICIAL 



3-3 



TABLE 



:/- 



SUMMARY OF ANTICIPATED IMPACTS 
(Continued) 






RESOURCE 


TYPE 

OF 

IMPACT 


FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF FOUR 

BUILDINGS & LEASE PUBLIC LAND TO 

REMAINING BUILDING OWNERS 


SPECIAL LEGISLATION 




AT.TFRNATTVF. 6 


ALTERNATIVE 7 


CULTURAL 
RESOURCE 


ADVERSE 


Archaeological sites would con- 
tinue to be disturbed. 


206 archaeological sites and 2 
ruins would revert to private 
ownership. Archaeological sites 
would continue to be disturbed. 
Lose opportunity for federal mgmt. 


BENEFICIAL 


Ongoing impacts to the archaeolo- 
gical resource would be controlled 
or reduced. Protect historic 
buildings on the tracts. 


Ongoing impacts to the archaeolo- 
gical resource should be lessened; 
historic buildings would be 
protected. 


LAND 


ADVERSE 




Approx. 2 AUMs presently available 
for livestock grazing would be lost 
out of 6,000 AUMs. 


USE 


BENEFICIAL 


No quantifiable change in grazing; 
no impact to mining. 


No impact to mining. 




ADVERSE 


None 


Public access to buildings could 
be denied, reducing recreational 
experience. 


RECREATION 


BENEFICIAL 


Historic integrity would be main- 
tained; overall recreational ex- 
perience improved. BLM would have 
capability for displays & exhibits 
in the 4 buildings increasing 
visitor experience. 


Building historic integrity would 
be maintained. Maintain visitor 
experience. 


AESTHETICS 


ADVERSE 


Short-term increase in noise 
levels associated with increased 
construction activities. 


Noise levels could increase. 




BENEFICIAL 


Scene kept in harmony with 
historic setting. 


None 


SOILS 


ADVERSE 


Localized short-term disturbances 
of less than one-half acre. 


Localized short-term disturbance. 




BENEFICIAL 


None 


None 


VEGETATION 


ADVERSE 


Localized short-term disturbances 
of less than one-half acre. 


Localized short-term disturbance. 




BENEFICIAL 


None 


None 


WILDLIFE 


ADVERSE 


Wildlife/human interaction. 


Loss of federal opportunity to 
manage wildlife habitat on 
32 acres, 




BENEFICIAL 


None 


None 


SOCIO- 
ECONOMIC 
CHARACTER- 
ISTICS 


ADVERSE 


Impact upon building owners of 4 
buildings; remainder still inse- 
cure. Some building owners may 
not be able to pay rental and have 
to sell. Owyhee County would lose 
$18 in tax revenue per year. 


None 




BENEFICIAL 


Improvement of water and sewage 
systems. 


Uncertainty to building owners re- 
solved; Owyhee County would receive 
additional tax revenue of $2,400 or 
more. Building values would increase 



8-4 



ALTERNATIVE 1 
NO ACTION 



Description 

For this alternative it can be assumed that: (1) the unau- 
thorized use of public land within Silver City will continue for 
the next twenty years; (2) the Silver City Zoning Ordinance would 
be retained and enforced by the Owyhee County Commissioners. The 
effectiveness of the ordinance to protect the historic buildings 
would not substantially change (see Chapter 2); (3) the BLM would 
maintain the present minimal recreation and cultural management 
program for the Silver City community. Map 8-1 shows the major 
buildings in Silver City that occupy public land without authori- 
zation. 

The existing occupancy trespass cannot be continued under 
present law. Thus, the no action alternative is not considered to 
be a viable alternative and will not be addressed further in the 
ES. However, an impact analysis for this alternative would be 
similar to the narrative found in Chapter 2, under Future Environ- 
ment without the Proposed Action. 

Section 302(b) of Federal Land Policy and Management Act 
(FLPMA) directs the Secretary to regulate the use, occupancy, and 
development of public lands through easements, permits, leases, 
licenses, published rules, or other instruments. 




3-6 



ALTERNATIVE 2 
SALE OF PUBLIC LAND TO BUILDING OWNERS 



Description 

Section 203 of Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 
(FLPMA) allows the Secretary of the Interior to sell public lands 
at fair market value only if the sale meets the following disposal 
criteria: (1) the tract must be difficult and uneconomical for 
the BLM to manage and not suitable for management by another 
Federal department or agency; or (2) the tract was acquired for a 
specific purpose and is no longer required for that or any other 
Federal purpose; or (3) disposal of the tract will serve important 
public objectives which cannot be achieved on nearby private land 
and which outweigh other public objectives which would be served 
by maintaining the tract in Federal ownerhsip. 

Seventy tracts containing 5.5 acres of public land in Silver 
City, Idaho, would be sold at fair market value to current build- 
ing owners upon proof of ownership. Map 8-2 indicates the tracts 
which would be sold under this alternative (see Appendix C) . 

In accordance with the authority of Section 208 of FLPMA 
(which allows BLM to place covenants, conditions, and reservations 
on patents or other documents of conveyance), the patent will be 
subject to, but not limited to, the following: (1) provision to 
protect the archaeological and historic resource. This provision 
would require all approved applicants to submit and comply with a 




LEGEND 

Approximate location of proposed 
tracts of public land to be sold 

Approximate location of privately 
owned buildings 



ALTERNATIVE 2 
MAP NO. 8-2 



8-8 



preservation plan for each tract of public land to be purchased. 
The preservation plan would be coordinated with the Idaho State 
Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) pursuant to the "Procedures 
for the Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties" (36 CFR, 
Part 800) to assure that the historic structures, archaeological 
sites, or other cultural resources are not inadvertently compro- 
mised, lost, or destroyed. The preservation plan must be prepared 
to the satisfaction of the SHPO and BLM before the public land 
will be sold; (2) provision that survivors and assignees would 
comply with all patent provisions; (3) provision that breach of 
any term, condition, covenant or reservation in the patent will 
result in all rights, title, and interest reverting to the federal 
government. Non-compliance would result in court action. 

Section 209 of the FLPMA also requires that all minerals be 
reserved for the United States, together with the right to pros- 
pect for, mine and remove the minerals under applicable law and 
such regulation as the Secretary of the Interior prescribes. 

IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . The public lands of Silver City are occupied 
by 70 privately owned buildings. Although most of these buildings 
have been altered, 65 have historical value. 



1-9 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

Compliance with the patent provisions (preservation plan) 
should assure that historically accurate building alterations are 
made. The long-term impacts should be the protection and preser- 
vation of a regionally recognized historic site, although the 
degree of protection cannot be quantified. 

Historic Archaeology . Of the 70 tracts to be sold, 22 tracts 
indicate a very high potential for both scientific data and 
public interpretation, 40 tracts showed scant surface evidence or 
extremely low potential for scientific data, 3 tracts had so much 
surface evidence that there is a potential for loss of scientific 
and interpretative data and 4 tracts could not be adequately 
inspected. 

By complying with the patent provisions, which require a pre- 
servation plan, on-going impacts to the archaeological resource 
would be controlled. 

The sale would also mean a permanent loss of the opportunity 
for full federal management. 

In spite of the precautions taken by the building owners, 
continued occupancy of the public land tracts proposed for sale 
would result in an unknown amount of continued disturbance to the 
archaeological resource. Any archaeological site which becomes 
disturbed would lose integrity if not scientific and interpre- 
tative value. Once disturbed, that portion of a site is lost to 
future field studies and interpretation. 



8-10 



Under this alternative, the archaeological resource may 
sustain fewer impacts than at present (see Chapter 2). 

Land Use 

Grazing . The proximity of the proposed tracts to the human dwell- 
ings and activities negates grazing. The proposal would result in 
no changes in grazing. 

Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. The 
history of the mining district indicates that rich ore occurred 
only near the surface and has now been mined out. There is little 
or no potential for new discoveries. A 1974 withdrawal prevents 
mineral location and entry under the mining laws. Since the 
proposed sale of public land is subject to existing valid mining 
rights, there are no impacts to the mineral resource or mining. 

Recreation 

Silver City's primary recreation is sightseeing and photo- 
graphy. Compliance with the patent provisions concerning mainten- 
ance and improvement work on buildings would be in keeping with 
the historic setting and the improvement would be beneficial. The 
visitor would be provided a better historic experience. 

Since the patent provisions do not allow public access to the 
tracts, the public opportunity to closely examine and photograph 
buildings, foundations and other locations will be lost. 



8-11 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

Aesthetics 

Past mining and settlement activities have totally modified 
the landscape of Silver City. Compliance with the patent pro- 
visions would not cause additional impacts to the visual resource. 

Since the BLM would not exercise control over the installa- 
tion of power operating plants on the patented tracts, the noise 
level from operating these power plants may increase. The in- 
crease of noise cannot be quantified but would depend upon the 
number and type of plants installed. An increase in noise levels 
would intrude upon the historic scene. 

If the state sewage disposal standards are met by the build- 
ing owners, there would be no adverse aesthetic impact resulting 
from improving the sewage disposal system. 

Soil 

The soils of the area are poorly developed and highly porous. 
Building repair and maintenance would result in soil disturbance 
of less than one-half acre. 

Vegetation 

Many domestic and ornamental vegetative species such as 
wildrye, bluegrass, elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and cur- 
rants inhabit the yards and gardens. The vegetation would be 
impacted by the construction and repair activities necessary to 
maintain buildings and supporting facilities. The impact would be 



8-12 



confined to the construction areas (less than one-half acre) and 
would have minor short-term impacts. There are no quantifiable 
long-term impacts to this resource. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted by the proposed 
action are songbirds, raptors and small rodents who are either 
partially or wholly dependent upon human structures for their life 
requirements (food, water, and cover). 

Wildlife species normally associated with old, run-down 
buildings would be permanently displaced or would temporarily 
evacuate their niche depending on maintenance or construction 
activities. Bird nesting and perching areas and rodent nests and 
hiding places may be removed. 

Everyday activities by humans resulting in loud noises from 
cars, generators, firearms, or construction and movement in 
critical areas, such as riparian zones, would permanently or tem- 
porarily displace wildlife. Dependency on human activities for 
food and cover would domesticate a few bird and rodent species, 
making them vulnerable to a wild environment when humans are not 
present. 

Any vegetation disturbance would temporarily eliminate habi- 
tat. Hiding cover, space requirements, and food souices for 
rodents would be affected, as well as nest sites for ground- 
nesting birds. Although small areas of disturbance seem insig- 



8-13 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



-.: .'■'•. 



nif leant, consolidation of habitat removal may displace animals. 
Long-term impacts to terrestrial wildlife are not anticipated. 
Short-term impacts are limited to human-wildlife interactions. 
Patent provisions would require maintenance and repair of struc- 
tures. These activities would temporarily displace or remove 
sites presently utilized for feeding, nesting, resting, or cover. 
Wildlife affected will relocate to other buildings or natural 
habitat suitable for meeting the species life functions. 
Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1). Habitat is in good condition. 

Assuming that habitat alteration activities in and near the 
township would not occur in the future and that the State of Idaho 
water quality standards are met and stream flows are maintained, 
trout, including the red-banded trout, would continue to survive 
successfully. 



Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County . Owyhee County is a rural, agricultural county lo- 
cated in the southwest corner of Idaho. The 70 tracts of public 
land to be sold under the alternative are estimated to have an 
average value of $2,500 per tract. Current tax rates for Owyhee 
County would establish a total of $2,400 additional revenue from 
these tracts. A definite beneficial impact would accrue to Owyhee 
County from an increase in tax revenue. 



3-14 



Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 
which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 
This is an organization of building owners. 

Sale of individual tracts would give the community a more 
permanent character. Building values would increase as a result 
of stabilizing the occupancy situation and creating a scarce 
commodity by limiting occupancy only to the present building 
owners. The community would benefit from implementing this 
alternative. 

Social Attitudes and Values . The uncertainty which has 
existed for many years over ultimate disposition of the Silver 
City occupancy issue would be resolved by the sale alternative. 

The building owners who could afford to purchase the tract 
would probably do so. However, it is possible that some building 
owners could not afford to purchase tracts. If so, they would be 
forced to sell their building at fair market value. 

Building owners would feel they had a more permanent settle- 
ment of the land tenure problem. It should improve their cooper- 
ation with BLM to preserve the historic integrity of the community. 

Service Systems . The present water supply system in Silver 
City is comprised of portions of two original systems that date 
back to the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are 
served by a 18 ,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. 

With the exception of one water-borne septic tank, all the 
buildings have outdoor privies. Many of these privies need repair 
or maintenance to meet state standards. 



3-15 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

The Southwest District Health Department determines whether 
sewage facilities and domestic water supplies meet state and 
county health regulations. If deficiencies are found, the com- 
munity would be required to correct them. Enforcement of health 
laws would result in greater protection of public health. 

It is impossible to predict compliance with state health laws 
by building owners. 

ADVERSE IMPACTS THAT CANNOT BE AVOIDED 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Archaeology . Archaeological sites disturbed from mainte- 
nance activity will lose historic integrity if not scientific and 
interpretive values. Once disturbed, they remain so. Once des- 
troyed, that portion of a site is lost to future field studies and 
interpretations . 

Recreation 

The quality of the recreation experience could be reduced if 
the general public is denied access to the tracts sold. 

Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result 
of building maintenance. Rehabilitation would restore native 
vegetation. Routine plant maintenance would improve the vegeta- 



8-16 



tive setting. However, some undesirable vegetation would become 
established after rehabilitation. After establishment, these 
species often dominate the vegetative stand. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Human/wildlife interactions cannot be avoided but the amount 
cannot be quantified. Some wildlife species would leave the area 
when human activiites reach intolerant levels. Some wildlife 
species are not very tolerant of human activity and would have 
behavior patterns and habits changed as a result of human 
interactions. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Some building owners may not be able to purchase the tract 
and would be forced to sell their building. The sale of these 
tracts would eliminate the future transfer of these lands to 
local, state or other Federal agencies. 



3-17 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



ALTERNATIVE 3 
SALE OF PUBLIC LAND TO 
NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 



Description 

The Recreation and Public Purposes Act (R&PP) of 1926 (44 
Stat. 741, 43 U.S.C. 864-4), as amended by Sec. 212 of the Federal 
Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA) , gives the Sec- 
retary of the Interior the authority to sell public land at fair 
market value minus a public benefit allowance to a qualified 
applicant. Public land disposed of under this authority cannot be 
of national significance nor more than is reasonably necessary for 
the proposed use. 

Under this alternative, a qualified applicant, which could 
include the State of Idaho, political subdivision, counties and 
municipalities, and bonafide nonprofit associations or corpora- 
tions, could buy tracts totaling 5.5 acres of public land occupied 
by buildings. The qualified applicant would, in turn, lease these 
tracts to the persons owning the historic buildings. Map 8-3 
indicates the public land tracts which would be sold. 

Prior to the disposal of public land, an applicant would have 
to submit a detailed preservation plan that would include provi- 
sions to protect the archaeological and historic resources. This 
plan would be coordinated with the Idaho State Historic Preserva- 
tion Officer pursuant to the "Procedures for the Protection of 
Historic and Cultural Properties" (36 CFR, Part 800), to assure 



8-18 




LEGEND 



sej ! Approximate location of 
I , . | tracts of public land to be sold 



Approximate location of privately 
owned buildings 



ALTERNATIVES 
MAP NO. 8-3 



8-19 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

that the historic structures, archaeological sites, or other 
cultural resources are not inadvertently compromised, lost, or 
destroyed. The plan must be prepared to the satisfaction of the 
SHPO and BLM before the public land would be sold. 

The sale of public lands under this alternative will be sub- 
ject to, but not limited to, the terms and conditions of the Code 
of Federal Regulations (CFR) , Title 43, Part 2740. In accordance 
with these regulations, the following provisions will be placed 
upon the patent: (1) All mineral rights of the public land will 
be reserved to the United States, together with the right to mine 
and remove minerals under applicable laws. However, the regula- 
tions make it plain that no minerals, other than the leasable 
minerals, may be disposed of until rules and regulations are 
issued by the Secretary of the Interior; (2) Failure to comply 
with the approved preservation plan or the terms of the conveyance 
would cause title to the lands to revert to the federal govern- 
ment. Non-compliance would result in court action. 

IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . The public lands of Silver City are occupied 
by 70 privately owned buildings. Although most of these buildings 
have been altered, 65 have historic value. 



8-20 



Compliance with the patent provisions (preservation plan) 
should assure that historically accurate building alterations are 
made. The long-term impacts should be the protection and preser- 
vation of a regionally recognized historic site, although the 
degree of protection cannot be quantified. 

Once title passes to the agent and building owners lease the 
lots, BLM would lose direct control. However, indirect control 
would be retained through administration of patent provisions. 
Historic Archaeology . Of the 70 tracts to be sold, 22 tracts have 
indicated a very high potential for both scientific data and 
public interpretation, 40 tracts showed scant surface evidence or 
extremely low potential for scientific data, 3 tracts had so much 
surface evidence that there is potential for loss of scientific 
and interpretative data, and 4 tracts could not be adequately 
inspected. 

By complying with the patent provisions, which require a 
preservation plan, on-going impacts to the archaeological resource 
would be controlled. 

In spite of the precautions taken by the building owners, 
continued occupancy of the public land tracts proposed for sale 
would result in continued disturbance to the archaeological 
resource which cannot be quantified. Any archaeological site 
which is disturbed would lose some of its integrity if not its 
scientific and interpretative values. Once disturbed, that por- 
tion of a site is lost to future field studies and interpretations. 



8-21 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

Under this alternative the archaeological resource may sus- 
tain fewer impacts than at present (see Chapter 2) . 

Land Use 

Grazing . The proximity of the proposed tracts to the human dwell- 
ings and activities negates grazing value. The proposal would 
result in no changes to the grazing resource. 

Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. The 
history of the mining district indicates that rich ore occurred 
only near the surface and has been mined out. There is little or 
no potential for new discoveries. A 1974 withdrawal prevents 
mineral location and entry under the mining laws. Since the 
proposed sale of public land is subject to existing valid mining 
rights, there are no known impacts to the mineral resource or 
mining. 

Recreation 

Silver City's primary recreation value is sightseeing and 
photography. Compliance with the patent provisions would require 
maintenance and restoration work on buildings to be in keeping 
with the historic setting of the community. This would result in 
a beneficial impact by providing the recreation visitor with a 
quality experience. 

Since the patent provisions do not provide for public access 
to the tracts, the public's opportunities to examine and photo- 



3-22 



graph buildings, foundations, and other features up close would be 
denied. 

Aesthetics 

Past mining and settlement activities have totally modified 
the landscape of Silver City. Compliance with the patent provi- 
sions would not cause additional impacts to the visual resource. 

Since the BLM would not exercise control over the instal- 
lation of power generating plants on the patented tracts, the 
noise level from operating these power plants may increase. The 
magnitude of increased noise cannot be quantified but would depend 
upon the number and type of plants installed. An increase in 
noise levels would intrude upon the historic scene. 

If the state sewage disposal standards are met by the build- 
ing owners, there would be no adverse impacts to recreation. 

Soil 

The soils of the area are highly porous and poorly developed. 
Repair and maintenance of buildings and facilities would result in 
localized soil disturbance. The impacts on soil cannot be quan- 
tified, but would be confined to an area of less than one-half 
acre. The short-term impacts are considered to be negligible. 

Vegetation 

Many domestic and ornamental vegetative species such as 
wildrye, bluegrass, elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and currants 



3-23 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

inhabit yards and gardens. The vegetation would be impacted by 
the construction and repair activites necessary to maintain build- 
ings and supporting facilities. The impact would be confined to 
the construction areas (less than one-half acre) and should have 
minor short-term impacts. There are no quantifiable long-term 
impacts. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted by the proposed 
action are songbirds, raptors, and small rodents that are either 
partially or wholly dependent upon human structures for their life 
requirements (food, water, and cover). 

The wildlife resource would be impacted by everyday human 
activities as well as by construction and repair of buildings or 
structures. Although this impact cannot be quantified, wildlife 
species normally associated with old, run-down buildings would be 
permanently displaced or would temporarily evacuate their niche 
depending on maintenance or construction activities. Bird nesting 
and perching areas and rodent nests and hiding places may be 
removed. 

Everyday activities by humans, resulting in loud noises from 
cars, generators, firearms, or construction and movement in 
critical areas, such as riparian zones, would permanently or 
temporarily displace wildlife species depending on their toler- 
ance. Dependency on human activities for food and cover would 



8-24 



domesticate a few bird and rodent species, making them vulnerable 
to a wild environment when humans are not present. 

Any vegetation disturbance would temporarily eliminate habi- 
tat. Hiding cover, space requirements, and food sources for 
rodents would be affected, as well as nest sites for ground- 
nesting birds. Although small areas of disturbance seem insig- 
nificant, consolidation of habitat removal may displace animals. 

Significant long-term impacts to terrestrial wildlife are not 
anticipated. Short-term impacts are limited to human-wildlife 
interactions. Patent provisions would require maintenance and 
repair to structures. These activities would temporarily displace 
or remove sites presently utilized for feeding, nesting, resting, 
or cover. Wildlife affected would relocate to other buildings or 
natural habitat suitable for meeting the species' life functions. 
Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1). Habitat is in good condition. 

Assuming that habitat alteration in and near the townsite 
would not occur and that the State of Idaho water quality stan- 
dards are met and stream flows are maintained, trout, including 
the red-banded trout, would continue to survive successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County . Owyhee County is a rural, agricultural county 
located in the southwest corner of Idaho. The 70 tracts of public 
land to be sold under this alternative are estimated to have an 



5-25 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



average value of $2,500 per tract. Current tax rates for Owyhee 
County would establish $2,400 additional revenue from these tracts. 
A beneficial impact would accrue to Owyhee County from an increase 
in tax revenue. 

Community Chara cteristics. The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 
which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 
This is an organization of building owners. 

Sale of individual tracts would give the community a more 
permanent character. Building values would increase as a result 
of stabilizing the occupancy situation and creating a scarce com- 
modity by limiting occupancy only to the present building owners. 

Social Attitudes and Values . The uncertainty which has 
existed for many years over the ultimate disposition of the Silver 
City occupancy issue would be resolved by implementing this 
alternative. 

Most building owners who can afford to purchase the tracts 
would do so. However, it is possible that some building owners 
could not afford to purchase a tract. If this were the case, it 
would probably force an owner to sell the building at fair market 
value. Depending upon the individual building owner, the loss 
would be either loss of a recreational property or a family 
heirloom. 

Injection of a third party could worsen cooperation between 
BLM and the building owner to preserve the historic integrity of 



5-26 



the community. Building owners would probably consider this 
alternative as creating greater frustration than the current 
situation. 

Service Systems . The present water supply system in Silver 
City is comprised of portions of two original systems that date 
back to the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are 
served by a 18 ,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. 

With the exception of one water-borne septic tank, all the 
buildings have outdoor privies. Many of these privies need repair 
or maintenance to meet state standards. 

The Southwest District Health Department determines whether 
sewage facilities and domestic water supplies meet state and 
county health regulations. If deficiencies are found, the com- 
munity would be required to correct them. Enforcement of health 
laws would better protect the public health. 

It is impossible to predict compliance to state health laws 
by building owners. 



ADVERSE IMPACTS THAT CANNOT BE AVOIDED 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Archaeology . Archaeological sites disturbed from main- 
tenance activity will lose some of their historic integrity if not 
their scientific and interpretive values. Once disturbed, a site 



3-27 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

remains so. Once destroyed, that portion of a site is lost to 
field studies and interpretations,. 

Recreation 

The quality of the recreation experience could be reduced if 
the general public is denied access to the tracts sold. 

Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result 
of maintenance work. Rehabilitation efforts would restore native 
vegetation. Routine maintenance would improve the vegetative set- 
ting. Some undesirable vegetation would become established after 
rehabilitation. After establishment, these species often dominate 
the vegetative stand. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Human/wildlife interactions cannot be avoided. However, the 
degree of interaction cannot be quantified. Some wildlife species 
would leave the area when human activities reach intolerant lev- 
els. Some wildlife species are very tolerant of human activity 
and they would have behavior patterns and habits changed as a 
result of human interactions. 



8-28 



Socio-Economic Characteristics 

An undetermined number of building owners may not be able to 
afford to purchase the proposed tract and would be forced to sell 
their buildings. 

Third party involvement may create greater frustration for 
the building owners than presently exists and may worsen the 
cooperation between the building owners and the BLM. 






8-29 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



ALTERNATIVE 4 

LEASE OF PUBLIC LAND TO 

NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 



Description 

Unless public lands are dedicated for specific use, the 
Secretary of the Interior is authorized by Section 302 of Federal 
Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) to lease public lands for 
habitation or other purposes in accordance with a land use plan. 
The Recreation and Public Purposes Act (R&PP) also authorizes the 
lease of public lands to nonprofit organizations. 

A qualified nonprofit organization could lease 70 individual 
tracts on 5.5 acres of public land within Silver City. They 
would, in turn, sublease these individual tracts to persons oc- 
cupying them, with approval from BLM. Map 8-4 shows the tracts of 
public land to be leased. 

Lease under FLPMA authority would be at fair market value 
(see Appendix A). R&PP lease rental would be at the appraised 
fair market value minus an allowance for any public benefit that 
may be allowed by BLM. 

A Section 302 (FLPMA) lease would contain the same provisions 
as described in Chapter 1. 

As required by the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 43, 
Subpart 2912, Recreation and Public Purposes Act, a R&PP lease 
would contain such provisions which BLM considers necessary for 
the proper development of the land, for the protection of Federal 



8-30 



PATENTED 







LEGEND 

Approximate location of proposed 
tracts of public land to be leased 
Approximate location of privately 
owned buildings 



3-31 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

property, and for the protection of the public interest. The non- 
transferable lease would be subject to, but not limited to, the 
following: 

(1) Provisions to protect the archaeological and historic 
resource. This provision would require all approved applicants to 
submit a detailed plan of preservation for each tract of public 
land to be leased. This plan would be coordinated with the Idaho 
State Historic Preservation Officer pursuant to the "Procedures 
for the Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties" (36 CFR, 
Par. 800) to assure that the historic structures, archaeological 
sites, or other cultural resources are not inadvertently com- 
promised, lost, or destroyed. The preservation plan must be pre- 
pared to the satisfaction of the SHPO and the BLM before the 
public land would be leased. 

(2) A provision to reserve the mineral rights of the public 
land to the United States, together with the right to mine and 
remove minerals under applicable laws. Until rules and regula- 
tions are issued by the Secretary of the Interior, no minerals 
except minerals subject to the leasing laws may be disposed of on 
the leased tracts. 

(3) A provision which terminates the lease upon failure of 
the applicant (lessee) to comply with the terms and conditions. 
Non-compliance would result in administrative action by the BLM. 



3-32 



IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . Seventy privately owned buildings occupy 
public land without authorization from BLM within Silver City, 
Idaho. Although most buildings have been modified by the building 
owners in some manner, 65 buildings have historic value. Com- 
pliance with the terms of the proposed lease would control or 
prevent intrusive modification (maintenance, alterations, and 
rehabilitation) by the building owners to the existing buildings. 
The overall long-term impacts of implementing the proposed lease 
would be to prevent further intrusive modification to the historic 
buildings and removal of ruins and artifacts remaining from the 
historic period. This action would help protect and preserve the 
historic integrity of the community. 

Historic Archaeology . Of the 70 proposed leased tracts surveyed 
in 1977, 22 tracts indicated a very high potential for both sci- 
entific data and public interpretation, 40 tracts showed scant 
surface evidence or extremely low potential for scientific data, 3 
tracts had so much surface evidence that there is a potential for 
loss of scientific and interpretative data, and 4 tracts could not 
be adequately inspected. 

Compliance with the terms and conditions of the proposed 
lease would reduce or control the following on-going impacts to 



8-33 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

the archaeological resource: (1) amateur archaeological and 
bottle collecting activity; (2) excavation in connection with the 
maintenance and repair of existing structures; (3) use of mate- 
rials from ruins for maintenance and repair of existing structures 
or the construction of new buildings. The reduction of impacts 
cannot be quantified. 

In spite of the precautions taken by the building owners and 
BLM, continued occupancy of the proposed lease tracts would result 
in continued disturbance to the archaeological resource which 
cannot be quantified. Any archaeological site which becomes 
disturbed would lose some of its integrity if not its scientific 
and interpretative values. Once disturbed, that portion of a site 
is lost to field studies and interpretations. 

Under the proposed lease, the archaeological resource would, 
in the long run, sustain fewer impacts than at present (see Chap- 
ter 2). 

Land Use 

Grazing . The proximity of the proposed tracts to the human dwell- 
ings and activities negates the value for grazing. The proposal 
would result in no changes to the grazing resource. 
Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. The 
history of the mining district indicates that rich ore occurred 
only near the surface and has now been mined out. There is little 



3-34 



or no potential for new discoveries. A 1974 withdrawal prevents 
mineral location and entry under the mining laws. Since the 
proposed lease is subject to existing valid mining rights, there 
are no impacts to the mineral resource or mining. 

Recreation 

The primary recreation value is the sightseeing and photo- 
graphy opportunity associated with the historic buildings. By 
complying with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease, the 
building owners would maintain the historic buildings. This 
maintenance will assure protection of these buildings as an im- 
portant aspect of the sightseeing opportunity. 

Since the lease does not provide for public access across the 
leased tracts, the public's opportunities to examine and photo- 
graph buildings, foundations, and other features up close will be 
affected. 

Improvement of the sewage disposal, solid waste disposal, and 
domestic water supply as required by the lease would provide a 
healthier, more sanitary and safer condition for Silver City 
visitors and occupants. 

The control of any commercial facilities by BLM through 
concessionaire contracts as a lease stipulation would help provide 
quality visitor services. 



5-35 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



Aesthetics 

The characteristic landscape is one of total modification 
because of the mining activity and settlement in Silver City. 
However, the modified landscape, because of its historic signifi- 
cance, represents a primary attraction. 

Compliance with the lease requirements pertaining to building 
modifications, earth-disturbing activities, erection of signs and 
exhibits, the location of generating plants and gas-powered gen- 
erators, would assure that the historic integrity of the town is 
not compromised. Compliance with lease stipulations to regulate 
the use of heavy equipment would help reduce noise levels. 

The development of acceptable sewage disposal systems and the 
removal of solid waste would reduce odor problems. 

Soil 

The soils are poorly developed and highly porous. Compliance 
with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease would require 
a short-term increase in activity. Activities such as construc- 
tion and maintenance of water and sewage facilities would cause 
short-term soil disturbance (less than one-half acre) in the 
immediate vicinity of the construction area. Soil disturbance 
would occur, but no data are available to identify the magnitude. 
The long-term impacts are considered to be negligible. 



8-36 



Vegetation 

Many domestic and ornamental species such as wildrye, blue- 
grass, elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and currants inhabit 
yards and gardens. Compliance with the terms and conditions of 
the proposed lease would require a short-term increase in ac- 
tivity. Activity such as sewer and water line construction would 
result in localized surface disturbance (less than one-half acre 
total) . Vegetation would be removed in the immediate work areas 
where heavy traffic or excavation is required. In most cases, the 
surface disturbance would consist of construction of a shallow 
trench in which to lay a small-diameter pipe (one inch to four 
inch), for a water line. In addition, approximately 50 small pits 
would also be constructed to install vault toilets. These dis- 
turbed areas would be small in size totaling less than one-half 
acre. The impacts to vegetation would be short-termed. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted by the proposed 
action are songbirds, raptors, and small rodents who are either 
partially or wholly dependent upon human structures for their life 
requirements (food, water, and cover). 

Since it is assumed that the proposed lease, due to compli- 
ance with stipulations of the lease, may initially require lessees 
to spend more time at their dwellings and in the immediate area of 
Silver City to fulfill maintenance stipulations, some impacts to 



3-37 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

local wildlife would occur. The impacts of human-wildlife inter- 
actions would vary depending on amount of increased activity and 
the tolerance of individual wildlife species to human activities. 
Since neither of the above can presently be quantified, impacts 
are discussed in generalities. 

Wildlife species normally associated with old buildings may 
be permanently displaced or may temporarily evacuate their niche, 
depending on maintenance or construction activities. Bird nesting 
and perching areas used by swallows, bats, and songbirds may be 
temporarily removed. Rodent nests and hiding places used by house 
mice and rats may also be eliminated. 

Everyday activities by humans, resulting in loud noises from 
cars, generators, firearms, or construction and movement in 
critical areas, such as riparian zones, would permanently or 
temporarily displace wildlife species. Dependency on human acti- 
vities for food and cover would domesticate a few bird and rodent 
species, making them vulnerable to a wild environment when humans 
are not present. 

Vegetation disturbance would temporarily eliminate habitat. 
Hiding cover, space requirements, and food sources for rodents 
would be affected, as well as nest sites for ground-nesting birds. 
Although small areas of disturbance seem minor, consolidation of 
habitat removal may displace animals. 

Significant long-term impacts to terrestrial wildlife are not 
anticipated. Short-term impacts are limited to human-wildlife 



8-38 



interactions. Stipulations attached to leases will require main- 
tenance and repair to structures. These activities will tempo- 
rarily displace or remove sites presently utilized for feeding, 
nesting, resting, or cover. Wildlife affected will relocate to 
other buildings or natural habitat suitable for meeting the spe- 
cies' life functions. 

Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1). Habitat is in good condition. Assuming that 
habitat alteration activities in and near the townsite would not 
occur in the future and that the State of Idaho water quality 
standards are complied with and stream flows are maintained, 
trout, including the red-banded trout, would continue to survive 
successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 
which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 
This is an organization of building owners. 

The proposed lease would not change the historical character 
of Silver City. It would not impact employment or income derived 
from commercial activities within the community. 

Compliance with the lease stipulations concerning water and 
sanitation systems could create a need for greater cooperation 
among building owners. This could result in greater social cohe- 
siveness by increased membership to the Silver City Taxpayers 
Association or formation of a new organization. It is impossible 



8-39 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



to predict changing building value that could be attributed to the 
proposed action. 

Social Attitudes and Values . Although the proposed lease 
offers tenure to the building owners, is transf errable to heirs, 
is renewable, and the lease rental is not expected to be unrea- 
sonable in terms of fair market value, building owners may not 
feel secure in an action of this kind based upon interviews iden- 
tified in Chapter 2. 

Some owners may not be able to pay the lease rental. This 
could force some owners to sell their property. The insecure 
feeling caused by a tenure settlement by lease may motivate some 
owners to sell their buildings. Depending upon the individual 
owners, the loss would be either loss of a second (recreational) 
property or loss of a family heirloom. It is difficult to predict 
if any or how many owners would propose to sell. 

Building maintenance costs may be greater to meet the require- 
ments of historically integral lease stipulations than they are at 
present. 

Some building owners are so opposed to a lease that they have 
threatened to remove their buildings. 

Service Systems . 

(Water Supply) . The present water supply system in Silver 
City is. comprised of portions of two original systems that date 
back to the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are 
served by an 18,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. 



8-40 



Compliance with lease stipulations would require that any do- 
mestic water supply system used in Silver City meet state require- 
ments. The Southwest District Health Department (SDHD) has com- 
pliance authority at Silver City and would determine whether the 
water meets state and county health standards. If deficiencies 
are located in the system or water quality is found to be sub- 
standard, the SDHD would require that the building owners correct 
them. BLM lease stipulations support SDHD in assuring the water 
in Silver City would be safe and potable. 

Small scale repairs may be completed by the Silver City Tax- 
payers Association or other organizations. If remedial steps re- 
quire large capital outlays, building owners may have to seek 
financial assistance from Owyhee County or the State of Idaho. 
(Sanitation System) . With the exception of one water- 
borne septic tank, all the buildings have outdoor privies. Many 
of these privies need repair or maintenance to meet state stan- 
dards. Compliance with the proposed lease stipulations would 
require that each lessee have a sewage disposal facility that 
meets county and state health regulations. Inspection and com- 
pliance authority lie with SDHD. The lessee would be required to 
correct and maintain these outhouses to comply with lease stipu- 
lations. Sewage facilities would be inspected periodically by the 
SDHD to assure continued compliance with State laws. 

The SDHD revealed that the majority of outhouses do not meet 
state and county health standards. Deficiencies were identified - 
many of the structures allowed access to vermin and most facilities 



3-41 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

did not have watertight, sealed vaults underneath. This enhances 
the probability of human sewage leaching into Jordan Creek, espec- 
ially from the outhouses near the stream. 

Beneficial impacts would result when outhouses are upgraded, 
decreasing the likelihood of disease infections. 



ADVERSE IMPACTS THAT CANNOT BE AVOIDED 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Archaeology . In spite of the precautions taken by the 
building occupants, archaeological sites may be disturbed. Any 
site which is disturbed will lose some of its historic integrity 
if not scientific and interpretive values. Once disturbed, it 
remains so. Once destroyed, that portion of a site is lost to 
field studies and interpretations. 

Recreation 

The quality of the recreation experience could be reduced if 
the general public is denied access to the leased tracts. 

Aesthetics 

There would be periods when the noise levels associated with 
the periodic construction activities intrude on the historic 
scene. This impact is a short-term adverse impact. 



8-42 



Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result 
of maintenance work. Rehabilitation efforts would restore native 
vegetation. 

Some undesirable vegetation would become established after 
rehabilitation. After establishment, these species often increase 
until they dominate the vegetative stand. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Human/wildlife interactions cannot be avoided; the de- 
gree of interaction cannot be quantified. Some wildlife species 
would leave the area when human activities reach intolerant lev- 
els. Some wildlife species are very tolerant of human activity 
and would have behavior patterns and habits changed as a result of 
human interactions. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Building owners would not feel secure in their tenure on the 
land under a lease situation. The lease rental could be a hard- 
ship to some owners. This may cause them to sell their buildings. 
If the property is a family heirloom, the loss is greater than if 
the property is just a second home for recreational purposes. 

Maintenance costs may be greater to meet the requirements of 
the historically integral lease stipulations than at present. 



8-43 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



■ 



sf&m 



ALTERNATIVE 5 

TOTAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF BUILDINGS 

AND LEASE TO SELLER 



Description 

This alternative proposes federal control and management of 
Silver City. Implementation is dependent upon the appropriation 
of funds. Buildings or structures would be purchased at fair 
market value on a willing seller basis but with a lease-back 
agreement; or a quit claim deed to the buildings would be obtained 
with the provision that the government would issue the claimant a 
lease for the tract and the buildings. 

The cost of purchasing buildings is estimated on the basis of 
acquiring all buildings. Estimates are based upon building values 
established on the Owyhee County tax roll. The value of 66 build- 
ings currently taxed at Silver City is $6,567. Recent sale of two 
buildings in Silver City was for at least ten times their value 
established on the tax roll. The value of taxed buildings could 
be as much as $65,670. 

Non-taxed buildings are given a value based upon information 
supplied by the owners: 

Church 

School 

I00F Hall 

Masonic Hall 
TOTAL 




8-44 




LEGEND 



j Approximate location of proposed 
tracts of public land to be leased 
Buildings to be purchased or obtain 
quick claim title 



SILVER CITY 



3-45 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

Thus, the total value of buildings is estimated to be $135,670. 

Almost all the buildings require maintenance work (mainly to 
the foundation) to make them safe and prevent deterioration. The 
estimated cost to put all buildings on public land in a safe, 
stabilized condition is $740,000. This estimate was made by- 
inspection from outside of buildings. A more complete evaluation 
may conclude that greater costs would be necessary. There would 
be an estimated $25,000 needed to bring the water and sewer sys- 
tems to meet state standards. 

To assure that adequate measures would be taken by the build- 
ing occupants to protect the historic buildings and archaeological 
resources of Silver City, lease stipulations would be identical to 
the proposed lease (see Chapter 1), except for the following: (1) 
no alterations, maintenance, or repair of any kind may be made by 
the lessee without prior written approval from the BLM; (2) the 
premises will be maintained by the lessee in an orderly condition, 
ordinary wear and tear excepted; and (3) the lessee agrees to 
allow employees and/or agents of the BLM to enter the property to 
conduct architectural research. The lessee will be notified in 
advance of such entries. 

Each resource is analyzed on the basis that Silver City 
building owners would sell or quit claim all buildings to BLM with 
lease-back agreements. 



8-46 



IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . Seventy privately owned buildings occupy 
public land without authorization from BLM within Silver City, 
Idaho. Although most buildings have been modified by the building 
owners in some manner, 65 buildings have historic value. His- 
torically inaccurate maintenance and restoration work on the 
buildings would cease. Presently, 59 buildings have intrusions 
from this kind of work. Work would then be in keeping with the 
historic period in which the buildings were constructed. Intru- 
sions from past work on the buildings could be renovated to fit 
the historic scene. Total federal control would result in the 
protection and preservation of the historical buildings of Silver 
City. 

Historic Archaeology . Of the 70 proposed tracts surveyed in 1977, 
22 tracts indicated a very high potential for both scientific data 
and public interpretation, 40 tracts showed scant surface evidence 
or extremely low potential for scientific data, 3 tracts had so 
much surface evidence that there is a potential for loss of sci- 
entific and interpretative data, and 4 tracts could not be ade- 
quately inspected. 

Compliance with the terms and conditions of the proposed 
lease would reduce or control the following on-going impacts to 
the archaeological resource: (1) amateur archaeological and 



I 



3-47 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



bottle-collecting activity; (2) excavation in connection with the 
maintenance and repair of existing structures; (3) use of mater- 
ials from ruins for maintenance and repair of existing structures 
or to build new structures. The reduction of impacts cannot be 
quantified. 

In spite of the precautions taken by the building owners and 
BLM, continued occupancy of the proposed lease tracts would result 
in continued disturbance to the archaeological resource which 
cannot be quantified. Any archaeological site which becomes 
disturbed would lose some of its integrity if not its scientific 
and interpretative values. Once disturbed, that portion of a site 
is lost to field studies and interpretations. 

Under the proposed lease, the archaeological resource would, 
in the long run, sustain fewer impacts than at present (see Chap- 
ter 2) . 

Land Use 

Grazing . The proximity of the proposed tracts to the human dwell- 
ings and activities negates the value for grazing. This alter- 
native would result in no changes to the grazing resource. 
Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. Rich 
ore occurred only near the surface and has now been mined out. 
There is little or no potential for new discoveries. A 1974 
withdrawal prevents mineral location and entry under the mining 



8-48 



laws. Since the proposed lease is subject to existing valid 
mining rights, there are no known quantifiable impacts to the 
mineral resource or mining. 

Recreation 

The primary recreation value is the sightseeing and photo- 
graphy opportunity associated with the historic buildings. Under 
this alternative it would be possible for visitors to have access 
to the entire area unless specific sites were closed off for 
safety reasons. 

The capability of BLM to interpret the total community would 
be enhanced. Exhibits and displays could be developed and the in- 
terior of certain buildings could be made available for public 
viewing. This would provide a very high-quality experience to 
visitors to this historic community. 

Aesthetics 

The characteristic landscape is one of total modification 
because of the mining activity and settlement in Silver City. 
However, the modified landscape, because of its historic signifi- 
cance, represents an important attraction. 

This alternative would result in a greater opportunity to 
remove visual intrusions and replace them with those in keeping 
with the architectural period in which the community was estab- 
lished. Additional maintenance and restoration work would also 



8-49 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

meet this goal. All signs, displays, and exhibits would also be 
in harmony with the historic scene. 

It would be possible to regulate construction and maintenance 
activities for minimum disturbance to visitors. Equipment, such 
as electric generators, would probably be installed and would 
create a continued impact upon the historic scene. Sewage facili- 
ties would meet state standards and would eliminate associated 
odor problems. 

Soil 

The soils are poorly developed and highly porous. Compliance 
with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease would require 
a short-term increase in activity. Activities such as construc- 
tion and maintenance of water and sewage facilities would cause 
short-term soil disturbance (less than one-half acre) in the 
immediate vicinity of the construction area. Soil disturbance 
would occur, but no data are available to identify the magnitude. 
The long-term impacts are considered to be negligible. 

Vegetation 

Many domestic and ornamental species such as wildrye, blue- 
grass, elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and currants inhabit 
yards and gardens. Compliance with the terms and conditions of 
the proposed lease would require a short-term increase in activ- 
ity. Activity such as sewer and water line construction would 
result in localized surface disturbance (less than one-half acre 



8-50 



total). Vegetation would be removed in the immediate work areas 
where heavy traffic or excavation is required. In most cases, the 
surface disturbance would consist of construction of a shallow 
trench in which to lay a small-diameter pipe (one inch to four 
inch), for a water line. In addition, approximately 50 small pits 
would also be constructed to install vault toilets. These dis- 
turbed areas would be small in size totaling less than one-half 
acre. The impacts to vegetation would be short-termed. There are 
no known long-term impacts to the vegetative resource. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted by the proposed 
action are songbirds, raptors, and small rodents who are either 
partially or wholly dependent upon human structures for their life 
requirements (food, water, and cover). 

Wildlife species normally associated with old buildings may 
be permanently displaced or may temporarily evacuate their niche, 
depending on maintenance or construction activities. Bird nesting 
and perching areas used by swallows, bats, and songbirds may be 
temporarily removed. Rodent nests and hiding places used by house 
mice and rats may also be eliminated. 

Everyday activities by humans, resulting in loud noises from 
cars, generators, firearms, or construction and movement in 
critical areas, such as riparian zones, would permanently or 
temporarily displace wildlife species. Dependency on human activi- 
ties for food and cover would domesticate a few bird and rodent 



8-51 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

species, making them vulnerable to a wild environment when humans 
are not present. 

Vegetation disturbance would temporarily eliminate habitat. 
Hiding cover, space requirements, and food sources for rodents 
would be affected, as well as nest sites for ground-nesting birds. 
Although small areas of disturbance seem minor, consolidation of 
habitat removal may displace animals. 

Significant long-term impacts to terrestrial wildlife are not 
anticipated. Short-term impacts are limited to human-wildlife 
interactions. 

Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1) . Habitat is in good condition. Assuming that 
habitat alteration activities in and near the townsite would not 
occur in the future and that the State of Idaho water quality 
standards are complied with and stream flows are maintained, 
trout, including the red-banded trout, would continue to survive 
successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County. Owyhee County is a rural, agricultural county 

located in the southwest corner of Idaho. The county would lose 

about $870 per year in tax revenue now being paid by the building 

owners from the transfer of the buildings from private ownership 

to federal ownership. 

Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 

which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 



8-52 



This is an organization of building owners. 

Federal acquisition of buildings would completely change the 
character of the community. All self-controlling attempts (semi- 
governmental control) such as the Silver City Taxpayers Associa- 
tion would no longer be needed and building occupation would be 
strictly on a tenant basis. 

Social Attitudes and Values . This alternative would produce 
a negative impact upon most of the building owners. Their atti- 
tudes are that they have preserved what historic values are left 
at Silver City. The possible impact of acquiring money for their 
building would not offset their pride of ownership of the historic 
building. Many owners have had this property in the family since 
Silver City was a vital community. 

There is also the possibility of some owners not being able 
to pay the annual lease fee and would lose contact entirely with 
the building. 

Service Systems . The present water supply system in Silver 
City is comprised of portions of two original systems that date 
back to the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are 
served by an 18,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. 

With the exception of one water-borne septic tank, all the 
buildings have outdoor privies. Many of these privies need repair 
or maintenance to meet state standards. 

State health laws concerning sewage and water would be com- 
plied with by BLM. Installation of proper systems would be based 
upon available federal funds. There would be no adverse health 



8-53 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

problems related to the sewage and water systems. Beneficial 
impacts would result when outhouses and water systems are up- 
graded, decreasing the likelihood of disease infections. 



ADVERSE IMPACTS THAT CANNOT BE AVOIDED 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Archa eology. In spite of the precautions taken by the 
building occupants, there could be isolated destruction of archae- 
ological artifacts or features. 

Aesthetics 

There will be periods when the noise levels associated with 
the periodic construction activities intrude on the historic 
scene. This impact is considered to be a short-term adverse 
impact. 

Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result 
of' maintenance work. Rehabilitation efforts would restore native 
vegetation. Routine maintenance would improve the vegetative 
setting. Some undesirable vegetation would become established 
after rehabilitation. After establishment, these species often 
increase until they dominate the vegetative stand. 



8-54 



Wildlife and Fisheries 

Human/wildlife interactions cannot be avoided. Some wildlife 
species would leave the area when human activities become 
intolerant. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County would lose about $870 in tax revenue now being 
paid by building owners from removal of the buildings. Federal 
acquisition of all buildings would completely change the character 
of the community. All self-controlling attempts (semi-govern- 
mental control) such as the Silver City Taxpayers Association 
would no longer be needed and building occupation would be strict- 
ly on a tenant basis. 

This alternative would produce a negative impact upon most of 
the building owners. Their attitudes are that they have preserved 
the historic values of Silver City. The possible beneficial 
impact of acquiring money for their building would not offset 
their pride of ownership of the historic building. Many owners 
have had this property in the family since Silver City was a vital 
community. 

There is also the possibility of some owners not being able 
to pay the annual rental fee and would lose contact entirely with 
the building. 



3-55 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



ALTERNATIVE 6 

FEDERAL ACQUISITION OF FOUR BUILDINGS AND LEASE 

PUBLIC LAND TO REMAINING BUILDING OWNERS 



Description 

Section 205 of Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) 
authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to acquire buildings of 
historic significance through purchase. In accordance with this 
authority, the following buildings are proposed for BLM acquisi- 
tion: (1) Stoddard House, (2) School House, (3) Catholic Church, 
and (4) Masonic Temple. This would be contingent on the alloca- 
tion of funds to BLM and the building owners' willingness to sell. 

The cost of purchasing the buildings is based on the follow- 
ing: (1) the Owyhee County tax roll value of the Stoddard House 
is $1,250; (2) recent sale of two buildings at Silver City was for 
at least ten times this value; (3) the value of the Stoddard 
House could be $12,500; (4) non-taxed buildings are given a value 
based upon information supplied by the owners. 

Complete 
Buildings to Be Acquired Value Estimate Restoration 

1. Church $20,000 $ 57,800 

2. Stoddard House $12,500 $148,000 

3. School $10,000 $ 50,625 

4. Masonic Hall $10,000 $114,750 
Total value estimated $52,500 $371,175 



8-56 




LEGEND 

Approximate location of building to 
be purchased 

Approximate location of proposed 
tracts of public land to be leased 
Approximate location of privately 
owned building 



3-57 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

The cost of purchasing and restoring the four buildings is 
estimated to be $423,675. 

The remaining building owners would be leased the individual 
public land tracts in accordance with Section 302 of FLPMA. See 
Chapter 1 for details of lease. 

IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . Seventy privately owned buildings occupy pub- 
lic land without authorization from BLM within Silver City, Idaho. 
Although most buildings have been modified by the owners, 65 
buildings have historic value. Compliance with the terms of the 
proposed lease would control or prevent intrusive modification 
(maintenance, alterations, and rehabilitation) by the building 
owners to 66 existing buildings. It would also control or prevent 
removal of ruins and artifacts remaining from the historic period. 
This action would help protect and preserve the historic integrity 
of the community. 

There would also be a greater opportunity to correct past 
intrusions on the four buildings acquired by BLM. 
Historic Archaeology . Of the 70 tracts surveyed in 1977, 22 
tracts indicated a very high potential for both scientific data 
and public interpretation, 40 tracts showed scant surface evidence 
or extremely low potential for scientific data, 3 tracts had so 



8-58 



much surface evidence that there is a potential for loss of sci- 
entific and interpretative data, and 4 tracts could not be ade- 
quately inspected. 

Compliance with the terms and conditions of the proposed 
lease would reduce or control the following on-going impacts to 
the archaeological resource: (1) amateur archaeological and 
bottle collecting activity; (2) excavation in connection with the 
maintenance and repair of existing structures; (3) use of mate- 
rials from ruins for maintenance and repair of existing structures 
or construction of new structures. However, amount of control or 
reduction is unknown. 

In spite of the precautions taken by the building owners and 
BLM, continued occupancy of the proposed lease tracts would per- 
petuate disturbance to the archaeological resource which also 
cannot be quantified. Any archaeological site which is disturbed 
would lose some of its integrity if not its scientific and inter- 
pretative values. Once disturbed, that portion of a site is lost 
to field studies and interpretations. 

Under the proposed lease, the archaeological resource would, 
in the long run, be impacted less (see Chapter 2) . 

Land Use 

Grazing . The proximity of the proposed tracts to human dwellings 
and activities negates the value for grazing. The proposal would 
result in no changes to the grazing resource. 



8-59 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. The 
history of the mining district indicates that rich ore occurred 
only near the surface and is mined out. There is little or no 
potential for new discoveries. A 1974 withdrawal prevents mineral 
location and entry under the mining laws. Since the proposed 
lease is subject to existing valid mining rights, there are no 
impacts to the mineral resource or mining. 

Recreation 

The primary recreation value is the sightseeing and photo- 
graphy opportunity associated with the historic buildings. By 
complying with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease, the 
building owners would maintain the historic buildings. This 
maintenance will protect these buildings for sightseeing. 

The control of any commercial facilities by BLM, via con- 
tracts as a lease stipulation, would help provide quality visitor 
services. 

Since the lease does not provide for public access across the 
leased tracts, the public's opportunities to examine and photo- 
graph buildings, foundations, and other features up close would be 
denied. 

By Federal control of the Church, School, Masonic Hall and 
the Stoddard House, visitors would have assured access to these 
buildings. Since these are historically important buildings, 
access should improve the visitors' recreation experience. 



8-60 



Aesthetics 

The characteristic landscape is one of total modification 
because of the mining activity and settlement in Silver City. 
However, the modified landscape, because of its historic signifi- 
cance, is an important attraction. 

Compliance with the lease requirements pertaining to building 
modifications, earth-disturbing activities, erection of signs and 
exhibits, location of generating plants and gas-powered gene- 
rators, would assure that the historic integrity of the town is 
not intruded upon. Compliance with lease stipulations to regulate 
the use of heavy equipment would help reduce noise levels. 

The development of acceptable sewage disposal systems and the 
removal of solid waste would reduce odors. 

Soil 

The soils are poorly developed and highly porous. Compliance 
with the terms and conditions of the proposed lease would require 
a short-term increase in activities such as construction and 
maintenance of water and sewage facilities that would cause short- 
term soil disturbance (less than one-half acre) in the immediate 
vicinity. The magnitude of soil disturbance is unknown. The 
long-term impacts are considered to be negligible. 

Vegetation 

Many domestic and ornamental species such as wildrye, bluegrass. 
elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and currants inhabit yards and 



8-61 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

gardens. Compliance with the terms and conditions of the proposed 
lease would require a short-term increase in activities such as 
sewer and water line construction that would result in localized 
surface disturbance (less than one-half acre) . Vegetation would 
be removed in the immediate work areas. In most cases, a shallow 
trench in which to lay a waterline (one inch to four inch) , would 
be constructed. In addition, approximately 50 small pits would 
also be constructed to hold vault toilets. These disturbed areas 
would total less than one-half acre. The impacts to vegetation 
would be short-term. There are no known long-term impacts to the 
vegetative resource. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted by the proposed 
action are songbirds, raptors and small rodents that are partially 
or wholly dependent upon human structures for their life require- 
ments (food, water, and cover). 

Since it is assumed that compliance with stipulations of the 
lease may initially require lessees to spend more time at their 
dwellings and in the immediate area of Silver City, some impacts 
to local wildlife would occur. The impacts of human-wildlife 
interactions would vary depending on amount of increased activity 
and the tolerance of individual wildlife species. Since neither 
of the above can presently be quantified, impacts are discussed in 
generalities. 



8-62 



Wildlife species normally associated with old buildings would 
be permanently displaced or would temporarily evacuate their niche 
depending on maintenance or construction activities. Nesting and 
perching areas may be removed in the case of birds and nests and 
hiding places may be removed in the case of rodents. Rodent nests 
and hiding places used by house mice and rats may also be 
eliminated. 

Everyday activities by humans, resulting in loud noises such 
as from cars, generators, firearms, construction and movement in 
critical areas, such as riparian zones, would permanently or 
temporarily displace wildlife species. Dependency on human ac- 
tivities for food and cover would domesticate a few bird and 
rodent species, making them vulnerable to a wild environment when 
humans are not present. 

Vegetation disturbance would temporarily eliminate habitat. 
Hiding cover, space requirements, and food sources for rodents 
would be affected, as well as nest sites for ground-nesting birds. 
Although small areas of disturbance seem minor, consolidation of 
habitat removal may displace animals. 

Long-term impacts to terrestrial wildlife are not anticipa- 
ted. Short-term impacts are limited to human-wildlife inter- 
actions. Stipulations attached to leases will require maintenance 
and repair of structures. These activities will temporarily 
displace or remove sites presently utilized for feeding, nesting, 



8-63 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

resting, or cover. Wildlife affected will relocate to other 
buildings or natural habitat suitable for meeting the species' 
life functions. 

Fishery. In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1). The habitat is in good condition. Assuming 
that habitat alteration activities in and near the townsite would 
not occur in the future and that the State of Idaho water quality 
standards are met and stream flows are maintained, trout, includ- 
ing the red-banded trout, would continue to survive successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County . Owyhee County is a rural, agricultural county lo- 
cated in the southwest corner of Idaho. Four buildings would be 
taken off of the tax roll. Owyhee County would lose $18.00 tax 
revenue annually from the transfer of four buildings to federal 
ownership. 

Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 
which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 
This is an organization of building owners. 

The proposed lease would not change the historical character 
of Silver City. Compliance with the lease stipulations for water 
and sanitation systems would create a need for greater cooperation 
among building owners which may increase social cohesiveness in 
the Silver City Taxpayers Association or a similar organization. 



8-64 



No change in numbers of visitors to Silver City would be 
anticipated. Therefore, no changes are expected for income de- 
rived from commercial activities in the community. 

It is impossible to predict changing values of buildings that 
could result from implementing this alternative. The typical 
residential tract would be leased at fair market value (see Appen- 
dix A) . 

Social Attitudes and Values . Although the proposed lease 
offers tenure to the building owners, is transferrable to heirs, 
is renewable, and the lease rental is expected to be reasonable in 
terms of market value, building owners would not feel secure in an 
action of this kind based upon interviews identified in Chapter 2. 

Some owners may not be able to pay the lease rental. This 
could force some owners to sell their property. The insecure 
feeling caused by a tenure settlement by lease may motivate some 
owners to sell their buildings. Depending upon the individual 
owners, the loss would be either loss of a second (recreational) 
property or loss of a family heirloom. It is difficult to predict 
if any or how many owners would propose to sell. 

Building maintenance costs may be greater with this alter- 
native than at present. 

Some building owners are so opposed to a lease that they have 
threatened to remove their buildings. 

Service Systems 

(Water Supply) . The present water supply system in Silver 
City is comprised of portions of two original systems that date 



8-65 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

back to the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are 
served by an 18,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. 

Compliance with lease stipulations would require that any 
domestic water supply system used in Silver City meet state re- 
quirements. The Southwest District Health Department (SDHD) has 
compliance authority at Silver City and would determine whether 
the water meets state and county health standards. If deficien- 
cies are located in the system or water quality is found to be 
substandard, the SDHD would require the building owners to correct 
them. BLM lease stipulations support SDHD in assuring that the 
water in Silver City would be safe and potable. 

Small scale repairs may be completed by the Silver City Tax- 
payers Association or other organizations. If remedial steps 
require large capital outlays, building owners may have to seek 
financial assistance from Owyhee County or the State of Idaho. 
(Sanitation System) . With the exception of one water- 
borne septic tank, all the buildings have outdoor privies. Many 
of these privies need repair or maintenance to meet state stan- 
dards. Compliance with the proposed lease stipulations would 
require that each lessee have a sewage disposal that meets county 
and state health regulations. Inspection and compliance author- 
ities lie with SDHD. The lessee would be required to correct and 
maintain these outhouses to comply with lease stipulations. 
Sewage facilities would be inspected periodically by the SDHD to 
assure continued compliance with state law. 



8-66 



The SDHD revealed that the majority of outhouses do not meet 
state and county health standards. Deficiencies were identified - 
many of the structures allowed access to vermin and most facili- 
ties did not have watertight, sealed vaults underneath. This 
enhances the probability of human sewage leaching into Jordan 
Creek, especially from the outhouses near the stream. 

Improvement of the sewage disposal, solid waste disposal, and 
domestic water supply as required by the lease would provide a 
healthier, more sanitary and safer conditions for Silver City 
visitors and occupants. 

ADVERSE IMPACTS THAT CANNOT BE AVOIDED 

Cultural Resources 

Historic Archaeology . In spite of the precautions taken by the 
building occupants, there could be isolated destruction of archaeo- 
logical artifacts or features. 

Land Use 

Recreation . The quality of the recreation experience could be re- 
duced if the general public is denied access to the leased lots. 

Aesthetics 

There will be periods when the noise levels associated with 
the periodic construction activities intrude on the historic 



5-67 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

scene. This impact is considered to be a short-term adverse 
impact . 

Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result 
of maintenance work. Rehabilitation efforts would restore native 
vegetation. Routine maintenance would improve the vegetative 
setting. Some undesirable vegetation would become established 
after rehabilitation. After establishment, these species often 
increase until they dominate the vegetative stand. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Human/wildlife interactions cannot be avoided. Some wildlife 
species would leave the area when human activities reach intoler- 
ant levels. Some wildlife species are very tolerant of human 
activity and would have behavior patterns and habits changed as a 
result of human interactions. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County would lose $18.00 tax revenue annually. 

Building owners would not feel secure in their tenure on the 
land under a lease stipulation. The lease rental could be a hard- 
ship to some owners. This may cause them to sell their buildings. 
If the property is a family heirloom, the loss is greater than if 
the property is just a second home for recreational purposes. 



8-68 



Compliance of state health regulations concerning water and 
sewer systems may require an undetermined outlay of money. 

Maintenance costs may be greater to meet the requirements of 
lease stipulations than at present. 



8-69 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 



ALTERNATIVE 7 

SPECIAL LEGISLATIVE ALTERNATIVE, 

TRUSTEE TOWNSITE FOR SILVER CITY 



Description 

While the proposed action and other alternatives are admin- 
istrative actions, Alternative 7 would require legislation. An 
application (1-10203) was filed with the BLM by District Judge 
Robert B. Dunlap on December 30, 1975, for a Silver City Townsite 
patent. Judge Dunlap was designated as an interim trustee rep- 
resenting 60 building owners in Silver City who were petitioning 
to acquire title to the federal land beneath their respective 
buildings. Attached to the petition was a brief management pro- 
cedure for public safety, vandalism protection, water and sewage 
facilities, fire protection, roads, and tourism. Also included 
was a guarantee that the historic character of the community would 
be preserved through deed covenants incorporated in the title 
issued to each property owner. 

When the BLM' s Organic Act, Public Law 94-579 (FLPMA) was 
passed on October 21, 1976, the above Trustee Townsite petition 
was voided. FLPMA repealed many land laws including the Trustee 
Townsite authority. However, since considerable effort had been 
expended by the Silver City residents in making application and 
the Idaho congressional delegation has considered special legis- 
lation to re-enact the townsite authority for Silver City, it is 



8-70 



considered to be an alternative. Theoretically, special legis- 
lation could take numerous forms, but for the purposes here, this 
alternative will analyze the Trustee Townsite authority, R.S. 
2387-2389 (43 U.S.C. 718-720) under which the original petition 
was filed. Since FLPMA has been enacted conveyance of title could 
be subject to the terms under this act. Considering the cultural 
values involved, this assumption seems reasonable. 

The procedures for making townsite application are outlined 
in 43 CFR Part 2670. Basically, the Judge of the County Court is 
appointed the trustee for lands under application. In the case of 
Silver City, only those lands actually occupied for town purposes 
can be petitioned for by the building owners (See Map No. 8-7). 
Once tracts are surveyed, the BLM must classify the land as being 
suitable for a town site. If this is accomplished and certain 
requirements are met, the land is sold to the trustee at $1.25 per 
acre. At that point, federal ownership terminates. 

Once patent is issued to the trustee, sale of the tracts by 
him is made in accordance with State Law Sections 58-801 to 803 
Idaho Code. The tracts are appraised and sold at fair market 
values to the owner of the improvements on them. 

The following provisions would be placed in the patent to 
protect the historic buildings and archaeological resource of 
Silver City: (1) the sale is subject to all existing valid mining 
rights; (2) this provision to protect the archaeological and 
historic resource would require all approved applicants to submit 



3-71 



PATENTED 




LEGEND 



Approximate location of existing 

building 
w[ 1 Approximate location of historic 

sites or ruins 
- — ■ — - Approximate location of proposed 

townsite boundary 



j 3 

[— ] 33 

BLOCK 8 3, 

-a ^° 




-D a " 


, 



SILVER CITY 



ALTERNATIVE 7 
MAP NO- 8-7 



8-72 



and comply with a preservation plan for the public land to be 
purchased. The preservation plan would be coordinated with the 
Idaho State Historic Preservation Officer pursuant to the "Pro- 
cedures for the Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties" 
(36 CFR, Part 800) to assure that the historic structures, arch- 
aeological sites, or other cultural resources are not inadvert- 
ently compromised, lost, or destroyed. The plan must be completed 
to the satisfaction of the SHPO and BLM before the public land 
will be sold; (3) there would be a provision that survivors and 
assignees would comply with all patent provisions; and (4) there 
would be a provision that in the event of a breach of any condi- 
tion and covenant in the patent to the tract, all right, title and 
interest revert to the Federal Government. Non-compliance would 
result in court action. 

Approximately 32 acres of public land within Silver City 
would be sold under this alternative. 



IMPACT ANALYSIS 

Cultural Resource 

Historic Buildings . Seventy privately owned buildings occupy 
public land without authorization from BLM within Silver City, 
Idaho. Although most buildings have been modified by the building 



3-73 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

owners in some manner, 65 buildings have historic value. Com- 
pliance with the patent provisions should assure that historically 
accurate building alterations are made. The long-term impact 
should be the protection and preservation of a regionally recog- 
nized historic site, although the degree of protection cannot be 
quantified. 

Historic Archaeology . A total of 206 archaeological sites and two 
major ruins have been identified within the boundaries of the 
proposed townsite. Of the 206 archaeological sites surveyed in 
1977, 50 sites indicate a very high potential for both scientific 
data and public interpretation, 131 sites showed scant surface 
evidence or low potential for scientific value, 4 showed so much 
surface evidence in site that there is a potential for the loss of 
scientific data and interpretive species, and 18 sites could not 
be inspected or showed no archaeological potential. 

By complying with the patent provisions, which require a 
preservation plan, on-going impacts to the archaeological resource 
would be controlled. However, it must be recognized that in spite 
of the precautions taken by the occupants, continued occupancy of 
the proposed townsite tract would perpetuate disturbance, which 
cannot be quantified, to the archaeological resource. Any archae- 
ological site which is disturbed would lose some of its integrity 
if not its scientific and interpretative values. Once disturbed, 
that portion of a site is lost to field studies and interpretations. 



3-74 



Under this alternative, the archaeological resource may, in 
the long run, be impacted less (see Chapter 2). 

Land Use 

Grazing . Of the 32 acres proposed for the townsite, approximately 
20 acres containing two AUMs are available for livestock grazing. 
If the townsite tract is transferred out of federal ownership, two 
AUMs would be lost. The grazing resource would be slightly 
impacted by implementing this alternative. 

Mining . Mining activities ceased more than 50 years ago. The 
history of the mining district indicates that rich ore occurred 
only near the surface and is mined out. There is little or no 
potential for new discoveries. A 1974 withdrawal prevents mineral 
location and entry under the mining laws. Since the townsite 
proposal is subject to existing valid mining rights, there are no 
impacts to the mineral resource or mining. 

Recreation 

The primary recreation value is the sightseeing and photo- 
graphy opportunity associated with the historic buildings. Under 
this alternative, tracts acquired by the building owners would be 
large. Public access to the tract to be sold could be denied, 
resulting in reducing the quality of the recreation experience by 
preventing the sightseers from inspecting the buildings and ruins 
up close. 



3-75 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

The overall historic appearance of the buildings and com- 
munity could be improved by the deed provisions for maintaining 
historical integrity of the buildings. 

Aesthetics 

The characteristic landscape is an important attraction. 
There would be no adverse impacts to the visual resource. How- 
ever, there could be adverse impacts from power generating plants 
if they are installed by building owners. Magnitude of impact 
would depend upon the number of plants installed. Operation of 
heavy equipment and machinery during construction and maintenance 
of water and sewer systems and building maintenance would also 
create adverse noise impacts. Noise levels from these sources 
would intrude upon the historic scene. If state health standards 
are met with the individual sewer systems, there would be no 
adverse impacts. 

Soil 

The soils are poorly developed and highly porous. Activities 
such as construction and maintenance of water and sewage facili- 
ties would cause short-term soil disturbance in the immediate 
vicinity. The magnitude of soil disturbance is unknown. The 
long-term impacts are considered to be negligible. 



8-76 



Vegetation 

Many domestic and ornamental species such as wildrye, blue- 
grass, elderberry, roses, willows, lilac, and currants inhabit the 
area. The vegetative resource of the area would be impacted by 
the construction and repair activities necessary to maintain 
buildings and supporting facilities. Vegetation would be removed 
in the immediate work area and should have a short-term effect. 

Wildlife and Fishery 

Wildlife . Wildlife species that would be impacted are songbirds, 
raptors, and small rodents who are either partially or wholly de- 
pendent upon human structures for their life requirements (see 
Chapter 2) . 

The most significant impact to terrestrial wildlife would be 
the loss of management ability for those habitats within the area 
of the townsite. Jordan Creek is one of the most important 
riparian zones in the area since waterways are scarce. Loss of 
the ability to manage habitat along the creek could affect popu- 
lation diversity associated with the riparian zone. Disturbed 
sites may affect the habitat requirements of a given species. 

Long-term impacts would be loss of the federal ability to 
manage 32 acres of wildlife habitat, especially in the riparian 
zone along Jordan Creek. Short-term impacts cannot be predicted 
because of insufficient knowledge about future actions in Silver 
City. 



8-77 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

Fishery . In Jordan Creek there are red-banded, brook, and rainbow 
trout (see Map 3-1). The habitat is in good condition. Assuming 
that habitat alteration activities in and near the townsite would 
not occur in the future and that the State of Idaho water quality 
standards are met and stream flows are maintained, trout, includ- 
ing the red-banded trout, would continue to survive successfully. 

Socio-Economic Characteristics 

Owyhee County . Owyhee County is a rural, agricultural county 
located in southwest Idaho. It has an agrarian based economy. 
The county would receive a small increase in tax revenues from the 
transfer of 32 acres from federal to private ownership. The 
increase in taxes cannot be quantified with the present data, but 
it should be greater than the $2,400 identified in Alternative 2. 
Community Characteristics . The Silver City Taxpayers Association, 
which was formed in the mid-1960' s, is a quasi-governmental body. 
This is an organization of building owners. Implementing this 
alternative would give the community a more permanent character. 
Building values would increase as a result of stabilizing the oc- 
cupancy situation and creating a scarce commodity by limiting 
occupancy only to the present building owners. 

Social Attitudes and Values . Building maintenance costs may 
be greater to meet the requirements of deed provisions to the 
land. Building owners would feel they had a more permanent set- 



8-78 



tlement of the land tenure problem. It should improve their 
attitude for cooperation with BLM to meet the objectives of pre- 
serving the historic integrity of the community. 

Service Systems . The present water supply system in Silver 
City is comprised of portions of two original systems that date 
back to the town's conception. Approximately 30 buildings are 
served by an 18 ,000-gallon storage tank and laterals. With the 
exception of one water-borne septic tank, all the buildings have 
outdoor privies. Many of these privies need repair or maintenance 
to meet state standards. 

The Southwest District Health Department determines whether 
sewage facilities and domestic water supplies meet state and 
county health regulations. If deficiencies are found, the com- 
munity would be required to take certain remedial steps. En- 
forcement of health laws would result in greater protection of 
public health. 

It is impossible to predict compliance to state health laws 
by building owners. 

ADVERSE IMPACTS THAT CANNOT BE AVOIDED 

Cultural Resources 

Historical Archaeology . Two hundred and six archaeological sites 
and two ruins would become privately owned. In spite of the pre- 
cautions taken by the occupants, sites or ruins may become dis- 



3-79 



ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 

turbed. Any site which becomes disturbed will lose some of its 
historic integrity if not scientific and interpretive values. 
Once disturbed, it remains so. Once destroyed, that portion of a 
site is lost to field studies and interpretations. 

Recreation 

The quality of the recreation experience would be reduced if 
the general public is denied access to the buildings and ruins of 
the town. 

Aesthetics 

There will be periods when the noise levels associated with 
the periodic construction activities intrude on the historic 
scene. This impact is considered to be a short-term adverse 
impact. 

Vegetation 

Minimal amounts of vegetation would be destroyed as a result 
of maintenance work. Rehabilitation efforts would restore native 
vegetation. Routine maintenance would improve the vegetative 
setting. Some undesirable vegetation would become established 
after rehabilitation. After establishment, these species often 
increase until they dominate the vegetative stand. 



8-80 



Wildlife and Fishery 

The most significant impact to terrestrial wildlife would be 
the loss of federal management ability for those habitats within 
the area of the town site. 



8-81 



Chapter 9 

Consultation and Coordination 




-' 



■ 



.-•■ 




m 




Lb:.... 



'W&R?M~ 



IfiBf 




MASONIC TEMPLE 



INTRODUCTION 

This chapter includes a brief history of consultation and 
coordination undertaken concerning this statement. There is also 
information about the organization of the ES team, federal, state 
and local agency contacts, significant meetings held, and a list 
of government agencies and nongovernment organizations that will 
receive a copy of the draft statement with a request to submit 
written comments. 



ORGANIZATION OF TEAM FOR PREPARATION 
OF THE DRAFT ES 



On July 5, 1977, the team assembled in Boise, Idaho, to begin 
preparing this ES. The team consisted of a staff from the Bureau 
of Land Management (BLM) Idaho State Office, and the Boise Dis- 
trict Office. Team members include a broad spectrum of special- 
ists: range conservationist, fisheries biologist, wildlife 
biologist, archaeologist, recreation planner, mining engineer, 
realty specialists, socioeconomists. The project manager, team 
leader, editor, engineering technician, typists and draftsmen 
provided support, guidance, and coordination for the effort. 



9-1 



CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 



CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 
IN PREPARATION OF THE DRAFT ES 



During preparation of the draft, other federal and state 
agencies with special expertise relating to the proposed action 
were contacted for information. A record of these contacts is on 
file in the Idaho State Office. Prior to preparing the draft ES , 
Dr. Roderick Sprague, Professor of Anthropology, University of 
Idaho, and William B. McCroskey, Professor of Architecture, Uni- 
versity of Idaho were employed to provide technical expertise in 
archaeology and architecture, respectively. 

The National Park Service (NPS) was informally contacted 
several times during the preparation of the draft statement. By 
letter of January 19, 1978, the NPS informally reviewed this 
statement. Their comments have been considered. 

The Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service (HCRS) , 
which was recently formed by combining the Office of Archaeology 
and Historic Preservation, NPS, and the Bureau of Outdoor Rec- 
reation, informally reviewed the preliminary draft statement on 
February 8, 1978. 

The State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) was contacted 
several times during the preparation of the draft statement in 
regard to Section 106 of the Historic Preservation Act of 1966. 
Cultural resource information gathered for the ES, impact anal- 
ysis, and proposed mitigating measures were delivered to the SHPO 



9-2 



for preliminary review on October 28, 1977. In a letter dated 
November 10, 1977, he indicated that, "A successful solution can 
be achieved only by preparing a preservation plan with a reason- 
able prospect for enlisting support of both groups of interested 
parties: BLM and the building owners. Your preliminary statement 
recognizes this essential need." The Bureau of Land Management is 
presently consulting with the SHPO in regards to complying with 
the requirement of the National Historic Preservation Act. 

On July 8, 1977, the Idaho State Office sent out a news 
release describing BLM plans to prepare an ES and requesting input 
for the statement. In addition, letters were sent out on July 22, 
1977, to the Silver City taxpayers and to the following broad 
spectrum of federal, state, and special interest organizations: 

Congressmen and Senators - 4 

City and County Governments - 3 

State Clearinghouse - 16 agencies 

Other Federal Agencies - 22 

Resource Interest Groups and Conservation Organizations - 44 

Universities - 13 

These efforts to obtain a wide spectrum of input resulted in 
ten written responses. Nine responses were from Silver City 
building owners who stated that they will not accept a lease. The 
Oregon High Desert Study Group letter of August 3, 1977 supported 
federal control of Silver City public lands. 



9-3 



CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 



COORDINATION IN THE REVIEW 
OF THE DRAFT ES 



Comments on the draft environmental statement will be request- 
ed from the following agencies, interest groups, and individuals. 
Federal 

Advisory Council on Historic Preservation 
Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service 

Soil Conservation Service 
Department of Commerce 

Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 
Department of Housing and Urban Development 
Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Mines 

Bureau of Reclamation 

Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service 

Fish and Wildlife Service 

National Park Service 
Environmental Protection agency 
State 

State of Idaho 
Governor's Clearinghouse 
Regional 

Owyhee County Commissioners 

Ida-Ore Regional Planning and Development Association 



9-4 



Nongovernmental Organizations 

Ada County Fish and Game League 

American Association of University Women 

Associated Taxpayers of Idaho 

Audubon Society 

Boise Riding Club 

Boise State University 

Capital Conservation Club 

Citizens Alliance 

Coalition to Save the Snake 

Energy Daily 

Friends of the Earth 

Gem State 4-Wheel Drive 

Greater Snake River Land Use Congress 

Idaho Environmental Council 

Idaho Water Users Association 

Idaho Conservation League 

Idaho Association of Soil Conservation Districts 

Idaho Forest Council 

Idaho Forestry Association 

Idaho Wildlife Federation 

Idaho Fish and Game Association 

Idaho Gem Club 

Idaho Outdoor Association 

Idaho Mining Association 



9-5 



CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 

Idaho Archaeological Society 
Idaho State Federation of Garden Clubs 
Idaho League of Women Voters 
Idaho State University 

Mountain Home Air Force Base Sportsman Club 
Nature Conservancy 
National Wildlife Federation 
Nampa Rod and Gun Club 
Offroad Motorcyclists Council 
Oregon High Desert Study Group 
Outdoors Unlimited 
Owyhee Motorcycle Club 
Sierra Club 

Silver City Building Owners 
Silver City Taxpayers Association 
Snake River Conservation Research Center 
Society of American Foresters 
Twin Falls Fish and Game Club 
Wildlife Resources 
Wildlife Society 

Copies of this draft environmental statement will be avail- 
able for public inspection at the BLM offices listed below: 



9-6 



Washington Office, 
Public Affairs 
18th and C Streets 
Washington, D.C. 20240 
Telephone: (202) 343-4151 

Idaho State Office, 

Public Affairs, Room 332 
550 W. Fort Street 
Box 042, Federal Building 
Boise, Idaho 83724 
Telephone: (208) 384-1770 

Boise District Office, 
230 Collins Road 
Boise, Idaho 83702 
Telephone: (208) 384-1582 

A public hearing will be held in Boise, Idaho. Details of 

the hearing will be published in the Federal Register and local 

newpapers. 



9-7 



APPENDIX A 



METHODOLOGY USED IN 
ESTIMATING LEASE RENTAL 



On August 18, and 19, 1977, a brief market search was con- 
ducted. Following is a brief summary of the information obtained. 

State of Idaho (Scribner) 
Payette Lake area 

Homesite lots lease at 5% to 8% of fee value 
Frontage on lake @ $459/year (80' x 200') 

Fee value calculates to $5 , 737-$9, 180 
Back lots @ $274/year (100' x 150') 
Fee calculates to $3,425-$5 ,480 

Owyhee County (Bachman) 
Murphy Hot Springs 

Estimate 206 lots, 143 sold, 10 year market 

River frontage lots average 30-60' wide, 60-80' deep 

Selling price averages $3 ,000-$4,000 per lot 
Back lots average 40-50' wide, 100-200' deep 
Selling price averages $2, 000-$3, 000 per lot 

Elmore County 

Featherville Area 
North of town 
River frontage, 75-100' wide x 150-350' deep 
63 lots sold at $5, 000-$7 ,000 each 
Trinity #1 Subdivision 
River frontage, 100' wide x 150' deep 
Back lots, 100-150' wide x 100-200' deep 
36 lots sold $4,000-$7,000 each 
1 back lot 1977 sale @ $5,000 
Featherville Acres (new subdivision) 
65 back lots, prices unknown 

Camas County (Ballard, Gill) 
Camas Creek Subdivision 

22 lots, + 5 acres each 

$3,000-$3,500 per lot, no sales 
Soldier Mtn. Ski Area 

15 lots, 2 to 5 acres @ ± $2,000/acre 

One 1976 sale, 2 acres @ $7,000 



A-l 



Blaine County (Nicholson) 
Magic Reservoir Area 
West Side 
Back lots, 50 x 80', $l,500/lot 
Near reservoir, slightly larger, $2,500/lot 
East Side 
Back lot leases 
One 30 x 50' $300/year offered for sale @ $2,000 (15%) 
One 25 x 50' $150/year no utilities 
Stanley Basin Area 

Before inflation, 80 x 150' lot @ $2,500/lot 
After inflation, same lots $10,000-$12,000 

The lease value of the land (lots) underlying the buildings 
will vary depending upon size and location, the largest lots in 
the "downtown" area being of the higher value. A range of values 
has been estimated based upon a percentage of face values. This 
range is estimated from a low of $10 per month ($120 annually) to 
a high of $40 per month ($480 annually). A typical residential 
lot would probably fall within a $15 to $20 per month lease value. 



A- 2 



APPENDIX B 



SILVER CITY AREA 
ZONING ORDINANCE 



All ORDINANCE RELATING TO THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC 
PROPERTIES IN SILVER CITY, OWYHEE COUNTY, STATS OF IDAHO} 
DEFINING CERTAIN TESTS, PROVIDING FOR SPECIAL USE DISTRICTS j 
PROVIDING FOR THE PRESERVATION AND [ION-DESTRUCTION OF HISTORIC 
PROPERTIES; PROVIDING FOR ENFORCEMENT: PROVIDING FOR APPLICA- 
TIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF APPROPRIATENESS; PROVIDING FCR 
CONTINUANCE OF EXISTING USES; PROVIDING FOR MAINTENANCE AND 
REPAIR OF STRUCTURES; PROVIDING FOR GUIDELINES » PROVIDING 
FOR APPEALS j PROVIDING FOR AMENDING PROCEDURES ; PROVIDING 
FOR VARIANCES; PROVIDING FOR INTERPRETATION; PEESi SEVERABILITY 
AND EMERGENCY. 

BE IT ORDAINED BY THE BOARD OF COUNTY COMMISSIONERS , COUNTY 

OF OWYHEE, STATE OF IDAHO: 

Section lx Purpose : For the purpose of promoting the historic, 

educational, cultural, economic and general welfare of the people 

through the preservation, restoration and protection of buildings, 

structures and appurtenances, sites, places and elements of historic 

interest within the area of the City of Silver City, County of Owyhee, 

State of Idaho, an Historic Restoration and Preservation Zone and map 

describing the. boundaries of said zone is hereby established and 

adopted by the Board of County Commissioners, County of Owyhee, 

State of Idaho. 

Section 2s Title: This ordinance may be known and may be 

cited as the Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, and shall become 

effective lh August, 1975* 

Section 3: Designated Areas : State of Idaho, County of Owyhee: 

A. Silver City Townsitei All in Section 6, T5S R3 WBM» 

SWj of the NEfc of the SE| of the NEi 

S£ of the NW? of the SS~ of the NEj 

W| of the SE| of the 5E£ of the NE£ 

SW| of the SEi of the NE-£ 

SE£ of the NWj of the SVi~ of the NE| 

IvJ of the NEs of the NB$ of the SEil 

KW| of the SEj of the NEf of the SE^ 

If.li of the tfSj of the SE£ 

Ui of the SW£ of the NEi of the S£'} 



T3 1 

Sllvur City Araa Zoning: Ordinaries, Page 1, 



mi of the NW| of "the SE£ 

tt& of the SE| of the NW£ of the SEj 

This parcel of land shall he withdrawn for the Silver 

City Townsite subject to an official survey. The 

permanent boundary of the Townsite shall be only the 

land required to include the buildings and hones of 

Silver City. All the land of this parcel that is 

outside the established boundary will be excluded from 

the Silver Gity Townsite. 

That part of the patented Tip Top Millsite Survey 

I303B contained within this parcel shall be excluded 

from the Silver City Townsite. The parts of other 

patented ground shall also be excluded from the 

Townsite. Map attached marked Exhibit "A". 

B. From Silver City one-half mile out. 
1. Legal description needed. 

C. One-half to one mile out. 

1. Legal description needed. 
Section ki Definitions ! For purpose of this ordinance, 
certain terms and v/ords are hereby defined; words used in the present 
tense shall include the future j words used in the singular number 
shall include the plural number, and the plural the singular; the 
word "building" shall include the word "structure"? and the word 
"lot" shall include the word "plot", and the word "shall" is mandatory 
and not directory. 

Acreage: Any tract or parcel of land .which has not been 
subdivided and platted. 

Buildingi Any structure having a roof supported by columns. 
or walls, and designed or intended for shelter, support, enclosure or 
protection of persons, animals or chattels. 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 2. b-2 



General usesi The following uses of land or structur -a* 
or both, are permitted within the zoning area, in addition to those 
provisions of Section Twelve (12). 

A. Parking area, public; 

B. Picnic area, public j 

C. Public utilitiy facilities, i.e. water tanks, pipes, 
utility poles, and similar facilities. 

D. Public safety facilities, i.e. fire protection and 
medical assistance. 

E. Private storage facilities of reasonable size to 
store substances which constitute an obvious safety hazard, i.e. 
flamable liquids and blasting materials. 

Special usesi Those uses which are not general uses as 
provided for in Section Twelve (12). 

Dwelling* A building or portion thereof, designed 
exclusively for. residential occupancy, but not including hotels 
or boarding and lodging houses. 

Lot» A parcel of land occupied or suitable for occupancy 
by one main building or use, with accessory buildings. 

Original appearance a The external appearance of the 
building on August 1**, 1975* 

Parking area, private » An open area for the parking of 
privately owned motor driven vehicles and not for public use. 

Parking area, publics An open area, other than street, 
used for the temporary parking of more than four vehicles and avail- 
able for public use whether free, for compensation, or as an 
accommodation for clients and customers. 

Signs, outdoor advertising! Any card, cloth, paper, 
painted, plastic,- glass, wooden, plaster, stone or other sign of 
any kind or character whatsoever, placed for outdoor advertising 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page J. 

B-3 



purposes on the ground or any tree, wall, bush, rock, post, isnc , 
building, structure or thing whatsoever. The term "placed" as used 
in the definition of "outdoor advertising sign" and "outdoor adver- 
tising structure" shall include erecting, constructing, posting, 
painting, printing, tacking, nailing, glueing, sticking, carving or 
other fastening, affixing or making visible in any manner whatsoever 

'Structural alterations i Any change which would prolong 
the life of the supporting members of a building or structure, such 
as bearing walls, columns, beams or girders. 

Structure! Anything constructed or erected, which requires 
location on the ground or attached to something having location on 
the ground. 

Trailer, automobiles A vehicle v/ithout motive power, 
designed to be drawn by a motor vehicle and to be used for human 
habitation or for carrying persons or property, including a trailer 
coach or trailer house. 

Uset The purpose for which land or a building therein 
Is designed, arranged, or intended, or for which it is occupied or 
maintained, let or leased. 

Yard» An open space on the same lot with a main building, 
unoccupied and unobstructed from the ground upward, except as other- 
wise provided in this ordinance. 

Section 5i Use districts ! The zone shall be utilized for 
such uses as are necessary to accommodate i 

R3. ............ . residential and business uses 

CU* •»«••••»•• t »**•*•*••* • community use uses 

Section 61 Regulation i Approval required, Areas affected i 

A. No trees shall be removed and no building or structure 
to be used for a residence, business or storage building, including 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page k, 

B-4 



the walla thereof, appurtenant fences, steps, porches, and pavin :, 
shall oe erected, reconstructed, altered, restored, painted, moved In 
or out or demolished within the Historic Preservation Zone, and no 
sign, light, fences, walls or other appurtenant fixtures hereafter 
called appurtenant fixtures, shall "be erected or displayed within 
the zone on any lot or that is visible from the exterior of any 
building or structure, located within said zone, unless an applica- 
tion for a certificate Of appropriateness shall have been approved 
by the Planning and. Zoning Commission. The above mentioned certifi- 
cate shall be required only on those acts which are of a major or 
significant change historically. 

All plans, elevations, colors, materials, texbures, 
landscaping and such other information deemed necessary by the 
commission to determine the appropriateness of the exterior features, 
buildings, or structures, placed on property within said zone, shall 
be made available to it by the applicant. 

B. Future road and stream development policy : Roadway 
development shall conform to the historic heritage of the community 
area. 

C. Sidewalks » 

D. Road and street signing; and lighting ! Street sign3 
and lettering shall be rustic in nature and of materials either of 
weathered wood or of materials that simulate weathered wood appearance, 
Sign lettering should be similar to the period and may be painted or 
routed in wood. Street lighting fixtures should be traditional. 
Materials of lettering, accessory outdoor advertising signs, shall 

be visibly compatible with the historical period. 

E. Conservation of Existing; Trees and Shrubs and Other 
Landscaping : Retention of the trees and shrubs presently on the 
site is encouraged. Trees and shrubs selected for addition to the 
historic zone should be either natives or indigenous to the area 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 5. 



B-5 



and/or trees and shrubs typical of those introduced especially 
during, the period of the late 19th Century. 

F. Weed and Rubbish Abatement t County codes as to fire 
shall be complied with in all respects and especially pertain to 
requirements of removal of dry grass, weeds, dead brush, etc. 

G. Safety i If the Planning and Zoning Commission certi- 
fies that a building is unsafe because of ' its present condition, it 
may be demolished, restored or removed. 

H. Mobile Homes or Temporary Structures : Ro residential 
occupancy shall, be permitted in mobile homes, garages or temporary 
structures as this would be incompatible v/ith the historic and 
archaeological character of this zone. 

I. The Planning and Zoning Commission shall review all 
plans submitted to it and shall approve those which are in conformity 
with the historic Silver City area. atmosphere as prevailed on 
August 14, 1975* and are wood grained or red brick construction and 
said exteriors are facing the streets included within the said zone, 
and which may be painted or unpainted, and in general, exterior 
appearances do not have any adornments, lettering, signs, or other 
devices that would be utterly inconsistent with Old Silver City 
atmosphere, which this ordinance attempts to perpetuate; and further- 
more there shall be no illuminated lighting of signs. 

J. Maintenance and repair ; .Nothing in this regulation 
shall be construed to prevent the ordinary maintenance or repair of 
any exterior feature of a building or property that does not involve 
a change in design, building material, or outer appearance thereof 
which is not inconsistent v/ith the historic atmosphere of Silver 
City, nor to prevent the construction, reconstruction, alteration, 
demolition or removal of any such feature when such is required for 
the public safety because of unsafe or dangerous conditions, or for 
structural preservation. 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 6. B-6 



K. Conti nuance of existing U3ea > Nothing in this ordin- 
ance shall prevent the continuance of present occupancy or lawful 
use of any existing building, except as may be necessary for safety 
of life and property. 

L, "R3 residential-business uss i The following regula- 
tions shall apply* 

1. Use regulationsi permitted uses are subject to 
review of County Planning Commission. 

a. Buildings in existence at the time of the 
enactment of the ordinance, except those under destruction orders 
from the Federal Government. 

b. Special usesi Subject to the provisions 
of Section Twelve (12). 

c. Trucx gardening and other horticultural uses, 
where no building is involved, and not operated for profit. 

d. Temporary buildings and uses for construction 
purposes for a period not to exceed one year. 

e. Automobile parking space. 

f . Road access which existed prior to issuance 
of townsite patent. 

g. Uses customarily incident to any of the above 
listed uses. 

2» Exterior changes to buildingsi The exterior of 
a building shall not be added to, remodeled or otherwise altered in 
such a way as to cause the outside appearance to differ from the 
original appearance of the same building as it is on August Ik ,' 1975, 
except as provided for in Section 6, sub-section J. 

3. Construction of new buildingsi Construction or 
reconstruction of 'buildings which did not exist on August Ik, 1975, 
shall be prohibited, except as prescribed in Section Twelve (12), 
covering special uses. 



B— 7 
Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Fage 7. 



k. Demolition of buildings: Demolition or removal 
of buildings, except in instances where such action is deemed neces- 
sary for the public safety, shall be prohibited. 

'■•• "CU" c ommunity use use : The following regulations 

shall apply* 

1, Use regulations 1 permitted tises arei 

a. Special uses: Subject to the provisions of 
Section Twelve (12) . 

b. Temporary buildings and uses for construction 
purposes for a period not to exceed one (1) year. 

c. Public parking areas. 

d. Public picnic areas. 

e. Public utility facilities. 

f. Public safety facilities. 

g. Public health facilities, 
h. Recreation areas. 

2. Other regulations! The same restrictions, not 
including uses, shall pertain to "CU" uses as pertain to "RB" uses. 

K, "M" mining use : The following regulations shall 

apply « 

1. Use regulations i Permitted uses aret 

a. Activities allowed under the Kining Act of 1872, 
or as amended. 

2. Building construction* Buildings allowable under 
the Mining Act of 1872 shall conform to the historic heritage of the 
community. 

0. Application for a certificate of appropriateness shall 
be filed by the applicant with the County Clerk, and upon the filing 
of such applications, the County Clerk shall set the same at the next 
regular meeting of the Commission, which shall be more than four (k) 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 8. B _ g 



day3 a* tar the filing of .the application and shall give public lotice 
of the pendency of said application, and of the hearing date thereon 
by posting a notice in two conspicuous places in Silver City, and in 
a conspicuous place at various locations around the County, not less 
than two (2) days prior to said meeting, stating the nana of the 
applicant, the subject of the application, and the date upon which 
the same will be heard by the Commission: At the hearing upon such 
application, the Commission shall hear all oral testimony and evidence 
in support and against such application that may be offered and there- 
upon determine either that the subject of the application is or is 
not appropriate, within the meaning of this ordinance, provided, 
however, that with the consent of the applicant, the Commission may 
defer final determination of the application until its next regular 
meeting. The Commission shall enter in its minutes the reasons for 
its determination upon any application for a certificate of appropri- 
ateness and such records shall be open to the public's inspsction at 
all reasonable times. 

GUIDELINES t FINDINGS' ! Before imposing any require- 
ments or disapproving any proposed project hereunder, the Planning and 
Zoning Commission must first ascertain and find that the existing 
structure or facility or the'proposed structure or facility, or the 
proposed alteration or restoration of such facility, is of such 
dssign, permanence, purpose or historical value that it needs pro- 
tection under the guidelines heretofore mentioned. Unless the Com- 
mission so finds, or further finds, that the design or exterior 
appearance of the proposed structural change is so different as to 
detrimentally affect the public interests above outlined, it shall 
forthwith approve the proposal. If the Commission finds, however, 
that the proposed construction or change is so different than the 
existing structure or facility that it will adversely affect the 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 9« b-9 



public interests above described, it shall either disapprove th 
application or approve it with such minimal conditions as it finds 
may remove the , objection. If it finds that it must disapprove or 
impose conditions, the Commission must make findings which are 
sufficient to support the disapproval or the conditions imposed, 
and which recite the facts on which the order was based. 

Section 7» Appeals ; Appeals from the Planning and Zoning 
Commission -decision must be made in writing to the County Clerk's 
Office by the party involved, detailing his grounds for appeal to 
the County Commissioners of Owyhee County. Upon receiving Notice 
of Appeal, from the said person, the Chairman of the Board of County 
Commissioners shall set a date for. hearing, giving notice to all 
interested parties at least one (1) week in advance of said hearing. 
At the hearing, the Board of County Commissioners shall consider 
testimony, including that of the applicant, and the Planning and 
Zoning Commission, directed solely to the point of whether or not 
the intended structure, alteration, repair, renovation, remodeling 
or appurtenant fixtures, etc., would or would not violate this 
ordinance. The Board of County .Commissioners shall either affirm 
the original decision of the Planning and Zoning Commission, or 
disaffirm it .by a majority vote and so render a written opinion in 
either case. In the event the Board of Cbunty Commissioners dis- 
affirms the original decision of the Flarming and Zoning Commission, 
the applicant will then be permitted to proceed with his intended 
plans. 

Section 8. Amending Procedures } 

A. The Planning and Zoning Commission, prior to recommend- 
ing amendment or repeal of the ordinance to the Board of County 
Commissioners, Owyhee County, Idaho, shall conduct at least ono (1) 
public hearing in which interested persons shall have an opportunity 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 10. 

B-10 



to by hoard. At least fifteen (15) days prior to the hearing, 
notice of the tine and place ana a summary of the plan to be dis- 
cussed shall be published in the official newspaper or paper of 
general circulation within the jurisdiction. The coir.niss.ion may 
also nnko available notice to other papers, radio and television 
stations serving the jurisdiction for use as a public service announce- 
ment. Following the coranission hearing, if the commission makes a 
material change in the ordinance, further notice and hearing shall 
he provided before the commission forwards the. ordinance with its 
recommendation to the Board of County Commissioners, Owyhee County, 
Idaho, A record of the hearings, findings mads, and actions taken 

shall be maintained. 

B. The Board of County Commissioners, Owyhee County, 
Idaho, prior to amendment or repeal of the ordinance, shall conduct 
at least one (1) public hearing using the same notice and hearing 
procedures as the commission. The Board of County Commissioners, 
Owyhee County, Idaho, shall not hold a public hearing, give notice 
of a proposed hearing, nor take action upon the ordinance, amendments, 
or repeal until recommendations have been received from the commis- 
sion. Following the hearing of the Board of County Commissioners, 
Owyhee County, Idaho, if the Board of County Commissioners, Owyhee 
County, Idaho, makes a material change in the ordinance, ftrther notice 
and hearing shall be provided. before the Board of County Commissioners, 
Owyhee County, Idaho, adopts, the ordinance. 

R. Any person may petition the commission or, in absence 
of a commission, the Board of County Commissioners, Owyhee County, 
Icaho, for an ordinance amendment at any time. The Commission may 
recommend amendments to the ordinance to the Board of County Com- 
missioners, Owyhee County, Idaho, not more frequently than every 
six (6) months to correct errors in the original ordinance or to 
recognise substantial changes in the actual conditions in the area. 



B-ll 
Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 11. 



Section 9. Other Resnonsibilitios and Dutiecj of j^hg c,air - ,l salon > 

A. All members shall serve without compensation. 

B. Anv member who has a financial interest in any matter 
being considered by the Commission shall disqualify himself from 
voting on such matter. 

C. The Commission may adopt rules and regulations not 
inconsistent with the intent and purpose of this ordinance, or with 
any of its sections, and may accept appropriations and use technical 
advisors and/or consultants, however, the Commission may not incur 
the indebtedness 'of the County of Owyhee, without prior consent of 
the Board of County Commissioners of said County. 

D. The Commission may from time to time prepare informa-, 
tional materials for the purpose of assisting' people and property 
owners in conforming to the intent and purpose of this ordinance. 

•E. In the event the Planning and Zoning Commission 
rejects a certificate of appropriateness, it must provide reasons 
and recommendations as to needed alterations which the applicant 

may consider. 

Section 10. Variances ^ The Planning and Zoning Commission 
shall herein decide all applications for variance from the standards 
promulgated in this ordinance. The Board of County Commissioners of 
Owyhee County, Idaho, shall provide as part of the zoning ordinance 
for the processing of applications for variance permits. A variance 
is a modification of the requirements of the ordinance as to lot 3ize, 
lot coverage, width, depth, front yard, side yard, rear yard, setbacks, 
parking space, height of buildings, historical character, or other 
ordinance provision affecting the size or shape of a structure or 
the placement of the structure upon lots, or the size of lots. A 
variance shall not be considered a right or special privilege, but 
nay be granted to an applicant only upon a showing of undue hardship 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 12. B-12 



because of characteristics of the site and that the variance is not 
in conflict with the public interest. Prior to granting a variance, 
notice and an opportunity to be heard shall be provided to nroperty 
owners adjoining the parcel under consideration. 
Section 11. Violation and Enforcement t 

A. Any violation of this ordinance shall be a misdemeanor. 

B. Any violation constituting a misdemeanor shall be a 
continuing, misdemeanor and each day it is in existence shall consti- 
tute a separate offense under this ordinance. The maximum, fine for 
violation of this ordinance shall be ONE HUNDRED AND NO/100 ($100.00) 
DOLLARS a day. 

C. The County of Owyhee shall have the authority to 
prevent the violation of this ordinance through the injunction pro- 
cedure as said procedure is set out in th« Idaho Code, and said 
right to an injunction shall not be construed in any way to prejudice 
any action which the County of Owyhee may have against the same person 
for violation of this ordinance as a misdemeanor. 

Section 12. Special uaes t Applications for special uses, 
as defined in this ordinance, shall be considered at a public hearing 
before the County Planning Commission, pursuant to requirements of 
this ordinance. Said Planning Commission shall make its findings of 
fact and recommendation within thirty (30) days after the public 
hearing. The Planning and Zoning Commission shall herein decide 
all applications for special uses from the standards promulgated In 
this ordinance? as part of a zoning ordinance each Board of County 
Commissioners, Owyhee County, Idaho, may provide by ordinance, 
adopted, amended or repealed in accordance with the notice and 
hearing procedures provided under Section 6 7-6" 50° » Idaho Code, for 
the processing of applications for special or conditional use permits. 
A special use permit may be granted to an applicant if the proposed 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 13. 

B-13 



use is otherwise prohibited by the terms of the ordinance, but tr ly 
be allowed with conditions under specific provisions of the ordinance 
and when it is not in conflict with the ordinr>ncft. 

Prior to granting a special use permit, at least 
one (1) public hearing in which interested persons shall have an 
opportunity to bo heard shall be held. At least fifteen (15) days 
prior to the hearing, notice of the tine and place, and a Gunnarv 
of the proposal shall be published in the official newspaper or 
paper of general circulation within the jurisdiction. Notice may 
also be inade available to otner newspapers, radio and television 
stations serving the jurisdiction for use as a public service 
announcement. Notice shall also be provided to property .owners and 
residents within the land being considered, three nundred (300) feet 
of the external boundaries of the land being considered, and any 
additional area that may be substantially impacted by the proposed 
special use as determined by the commission. When notice is required 
to two hundred (200) or more property owners or residents, alternate 
forms of procedures which would provide adequate notice may be 
provided by local ordinance in lieu of mailed notice. 

Upon the granting of a special use permit, conditions 
may be attached to a special use permit including, but not limited 
to, those » 

A. Minimizing adverse impact on other development; 

B. Controlling the sequence and timing of development} 

C. Controlling the duration of development i 

D. Assuring that development is maintained properly j 

E. Designating the exact location and nature of development; 
Fi Requiring the provision for on-site or off-site facili- 
ties or services; 



Silver City Area Zoning Ordinance, Page Ik. 

B-14 



Prior to granting a special use permit, atudiaa , aay 
be required of tjie social, economic, fiscal, and environmental 
effects of the proposed special use- A special use permit shall not 
be considered as establishing a binding precedent to grant other 
special U3e permits. A special usa permit is not transferrable 
from one parcel of land to another. 

The Commission may recommend such restrictions as 
may be reasonable under the circumstances, provided that such re- 
strictions shall not be more restrictive than the requirements 
established for the district in which such structure is proposed 
to be located. 

Section 13. Interpretations » Purpose and conflict ; In 
interpreting and applying the provisions of this ordinance, they 
shall be held to be the minimum requirements for the promotion of 
public safety, health, convenience, comfort, prosperity and general 
welfare. It is not intended by this ordinance to interfere with, 
abrogate, annul or repeal any ordinance, rules, regulations, pre- 
viously adopted and not in conflict with any of. the provisions of 
this Ordinance or which shall be adopted", pursuant to the lav/ re- 
lating to the use of buildings or premises, nor is it intended by 
this Ordinance to interfere v/ith or acrogate or annul any easements, 
covenants, or other agreements between parties, except where this 
ordinance imposes a greater restriction upon the use of buildings 
or requires larger open spaces than are imposed or required by such 
other ordinances or such easements, covenants or other agreements, 
the provisions of thi3 ordinance shall control. 

Section Ik. Fees t Tees pertaining to petitions for zoning 
amendments, certificates af appropriateness, variations and for 
appeals, snail be established by action of the County Commissioners 
from time to time. Such fees shall be paid to *he County Clerk, who 
will give a receipt therefore. 



Siitfer qtty Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 15, B-^15 



Section 15. Severability ; If any of the sections of tLis 
ordinance are declared invalid, the remaining sections will remain 
in effect. 

Section 16 . Emergency : An emergency existing therefore, 
which emergency is hereby declared to exist, this ordinance shall 
take effect and be in force from arid after its passage and approval, 

ADOPTED AND APPROVED by the Board of County Commis si oners 
of Owyhee County, State of Idaho, this l^th day of August, 1975- 

APPROVED! 



Chairman 



Commissioner 



ATTEST: Commissioner 



Owyhee County Clerk 



Sliver Cltv Area Zoning Ordinance, Page 16 and Final. 



u-16 






APPENDIX C 



SILVER CITY BUILDINGS 



APPENDIX C 
SILVER CITY BUILDINGS 



O 
I 



Block 


Lot 
No. 


Date 
Constructed 


Purpose of 
Construction 


Use 


Current 
Taxpayer 


Historical 


No. 


1903 


1931 


1951 


1977 


Significance 


1 


11 


ca 1873 


Boarding 
House 


Boarding House 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Donald Reich 


Primary 




12 


ca 1873 


Boarding 
House 


Boarding House 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Grete Estate 


Primary 




16 


ca 1870 


Tele Office 
& Lodgings 


Tele Office 
& Lodgings 


IOOF Lodge & 
K. of Pythias 


IOOF Lodge & 
K. of Pythias 


IOOF Lodge 


IOOF Lodge 


Primary 




24 


1873 


Drug Store & 
Post Office 


Drug Store & 
Post Office 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Walt Adams 


Primary 




25 


1896 


Dentist's 
Office 


Candy & 
Notions Store 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Phil Cramer 


Primary 




25% 


ca 1872 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Rebuilt Con- 
temp. Dwelling 


Robert O'Malley 


Secondary 




50% 


ca 1895 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Mary Hanson 


Secondary 




51 


ca 1896 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Richard Albertine 


Secondary 




53 


ca 1878 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Paul Sligar 


Secondary 




54 


ca 1893 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Harold Statham 


Secondary 




58 


ca 1890 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Wilma Statham 


Secondary 




62 


1868 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Daryl Taque 


Secondary 




62% 


ca 1967 


Dwelling 








Dwelling 


Robert Leonard 


Secondary 




65 


ca 1892 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dick Jayo 


Secondary 




71 


Unknown 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Ned Williams 


Secondary 


2 


5 


ca 1876 


Blacksmith 
Shop 


Machinery 
Storage 


Machinery 
Storage 


Vacant 


Storage 


Phil Cramer 


Secondary 




11 


1874 


Laundry & 
Hotel 


Laundry & 
Hotel 


Laundry & 
Hotel 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Alma Cram 


Primary 




13 


1873 


County 
Offices 


County 
Offices 


County 
Offices 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Paul Nettleton 


Primary 



APPENDIX C (continued) 



n 
i 



Slock 


Lot 
"o. 


Date 
Constructed 


Purpose of 
Construction 


Use 


Current 
Taxoaver 


Historical 


Xo. 


1903 


1931 


1951 


1977 


Significance 


2 


31 


1896 


Lippincott Bdg 
Dr's Office 


Dr's Office & 
Dwelling 


Dr's Office & 
Dwelling 


Vacant 
Dwelling 


Dwelling 


S . A . Swayne 


Primary 




31% 


1896 


Pharmacy 


Pharmacy 


Pharmacy 


3 


14 


ca 1867 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Rebuilt 
Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Shed 


Joseph A. Bennett 


Secondary 




84 


1865 


Barber Shop & 
Bath House 


Barber Shop 


Dwelling 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Fred Foster 


Primary 




85 


ca 1865 


Hawes Bazaar 


General Store 


General Store 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Fred Foster 


Primary 




86 & 87 


ca 1865 


Butcher Shop 


Butcher Shop 


Meat Market 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Clarence Orton, Sr. 


Primary 




91 


ca 1872 


Furniture 
Store 


Furniture 
Store 


Merchants 
Garage 


Vacant 


Storage 


Leonard Family 
Estate 


Secondary 




101% 


ca 1872 


Restaurant 


Dwelling 


Post Office 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Karl Laible 


Secondary 


4 


67 


ca 1869 


Saloon 


Storage 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Walt Adams 


Primary 




68 


ca 1869 


Assay Office 


Brothel 


Vacant 




68% 


ca 1870 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Emaline Nettleton 


Secondary 




74% 


1869 


Masonic Lodge 
& Planing Mill 


Masonic Hall 


Masonic Hall 


Masonic Hall 


Masonic Hall 


Masonic Hall 


Primary 




75 


1867 


Hardware 
Store 


Hardware 
Store 


Printing Off. 
& Dwelling 


Printing Off. 
& Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Keith Chadwick 


Primary 




76 


1867 


General 
Store 


Dwelling 


Storage 


Vacant 




78-80 


1866 


Idaho Hotel 


Hotel 


Hotel 


Hotel 


Dwelling & 
Business 


Ed Jagels 


Primary 




81 


1889- 
1892 


Hotel. Rooms 


Hotel Rooms 


Lodgings 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Elwyn Larson 


Primary 




84 


1875 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dive 1 ling 


Dwelling 


Martin Peterson 


Primary 


5 


2 


ca 1872 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


John Burke 


Secondary 




3 


ca 1867 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Roy Hoagland 


Secondary 




4 


ca 1892 


School 


School 


School 


Vacant 


Museum. 


Melba School 
District 


Primary 




4% 


1873 


School Out 
Building 


School Out 
Building 


School Out 
Building 


Vacant 


Out Building 


Melba School 
District 


Secondary 



APPENDIX C (continued) 



O 

I 



Block 


Lot 

So. 


Date 

Constructed 


Purpose of 
Construction 


Use 


Current 
Taxpayer 


Historical 


No. 


1903 


1931 


1951 


1977 


Siyrnifics-ce 




5 


1866 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Loren Frederickson 


Secondary 




51s 


ca 1868 


Shed 


Shed 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Loren Frederickson 


Secondary 




6 


ca 1898 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Norris Stimpson 


Secondary 




(h 


ca 1900 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Phil Cramer 


Secondary 




eh 


ca 1872 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


S. A, Swayne 


Secondary 




9 


1870 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


John Rogge 


Primary 




10 


1873 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Sandra Coverly 


Secondary 




12 


ca 1874 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Clyde Snell 


Secondary 


6 


20% 


ca 1897 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


H. Nettleton 


Secondary 


7 


28% 


ca 1890 


Storage 


Storage 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Rebuilt 
Dwelling 


Terrance 
Hasselbring 


Secondary 




31 


1867 


Ice House 


Ice House 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Clarence Orton, Jr. 


Primary 




32 


ca 1870 


Office 


Office 


Dwelling 


Vacant 


Secondary 




40 


ca 1872 


Store 


Store 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Donald 
Hasselbring 


Secondary 




42 


ca 1873 


Moe ' s Jewelry 
Store 


Jewelry 
Store 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Donald Reich 


Secondary 




43 


ca 1878 


Undertaker 
Hotel Rooms 


Undertaker 
Hotel Rooms 


Vacant 


Vacant 


Dwelling 


Cecil Wood 


Secondary 




46 


ca 1870 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


David Clark 


Secondary 




55 


ca 1882 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Keith Chadwick 


Secondary 


8&9 


None 


















10 


14 


ca 1870 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Kenneth Downing 


Secondary 




17 


ca 1893 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


John Yoder 


Secondary 



APPENDIX C (continued) 



O 
I 



Block 


Lot 

No. 


Date 
Constructed 


Purpose of 
Construction 


Use 


Current 
Taxpaver 


Historical 


So. 


1903 


1931 


1951 


1977 


Sienificar.ee 




20 


ca 189L2 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Richard 
Birmingham 


Secondary 




22% 


ca 1881 


Storage 
Building 


Storage 
Building 


Storage 
Building 


Storage 
Building 


Storage 
Building 


William Hauck 


Secondary 




24 


ca 1868 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


J. Nettleton 


Secondary 




25 & 26 


ca 1868 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Alice L. 
Van Atta 


Secondary 




35 


ca 1865 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Dwelling 


Mary Koopman 


Secondary 


11 


51 


ca 187Q 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Roger Hinton 


Secondary 




52 


ca 1870 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Harold Curt 


Secondary 




53 


ca 1868 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Grete Estate 


Secondary 




54 


ca 1890 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Gertrude Peer 


Secondary 




55 


1864-65 


Miners Union 
Hospital 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Douglas Hyslop 


Primary 




57 


ca 1872 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Eleanor Beaman 


Secondary 




58 


ca 1890 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Shirley Brown 


Secondary 




5a 


1896-98 


Church 


Episcopal 
Church 


Episcopal 
Church 


Catholic 
Church 


Catholic 
Church 


St. Marks 
R.C. Church 


Primary 




60 


ca 1899 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Joan Grogan 


Secondary 




61 


ca 1874 


Dwelling 


Beyond Limits of Sanborn Map 


Dwelling 


Nick Ihli 


Secondary 



APPENDIX D 



METHODOLOGY USED IN 

ASSESSING THE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCE 



The following is a summary of the procedures and methods used 
by Dr. Roderick Sprague in assessing the historic archaeological 
resource of the ES study area. 
Archaeological Testing at Silver City, Idaho . 

After an extensive search of library and archival sources to 
gain background information (see Sprague, 1977:1), field work was 
performed on site. A lot-by-lot ground evaluation was done by 
using a map prepared by William B. McCroskey. Each lot within the 
11 blocks was given a careful surface survey for indications of 
archaeological potential. After a detailed ground search, each 
lot was assigned an evaluation code number based on the following 
system: 

= Absolutely no archaeological potential for the 

lot. 

1 = An extremely low potential for historical 

archaeological scientific value. 

2 = An indication of scant surface evidence . 

3 = An indication of a very high potential for both 

scientific data and public interpretation. 

U = A designation that there is so much surface evi- 
dence in situ that there is a potential for the 
loss of scientific data and interpretive specimens. 

5 = Lots that could not adequately be inspected. 

Table D-l shows the results of the surface investigation and 

evaluation. 



D-l 



A total of 260 lots were assigned an evaluation code number. 
Of these, 90 (34.5 percent) were designated to be of primary signi- 
ficance (primary = given numbers of 3 or 4). Of the 90, 81 (31 
percent) were rated the code number 3, and nine (3.5 percent) were 
rated the code number 4. There were 164 lots (63 percent) designated 
to be of secondary significance (secondary = given numbers of 0, 
1, or 2). The remaining six lots (2.5 percent) were not able to 
receive adequate inspection and were given the code number 5. 

It should be mentioned that a surface survey is, in the majority 
of cases, not a complete assessment of archaeological sites and/or 
their significances. Very often archaeological data is of a sub- 
surface nature and, therefore, not subject to visual inspection. 

After the surface survey and evaluation, a non-random sample 
was devised for archaeological testing. This was done to determine 
the reliability of the surface evaluations. The sample was non- 
random due to the researcher's choice to skew the sample towards 
what he, and others, felt might be the direction of the lower 
evaluation potential. For example, areas said to be of essentially 
no archaeological potential due to extensive disturbance by bottle 
collectors and amateur archaeological dispoilers were included in 
the sample to determine if, indeed, there was any scientific poten- 
tial left to such areas. 



D-2 



TABLE D-l 



TABLE OF SURFACE EVALUATIONS 



Block 
No. 


Evaluation 
No. 


Total No. of 
Lots Assigned 


Percent of 
Block Total 


Percent of 
Total Assessment 


1 








0% 


0% 




1 


13 


35 


5 




2 


10 


27 


4 




3 


11 


30 


4 




4 


3 


8 


1 




5 













Totals 


37 


100% 


14% 


2 





5 


30 


2 




1 













2 


7 


40 


2 




3 


5 


30 


2 




4 













5 













Totals 


17 


100% 


6% 


3 





5 


15 


2 




1 


16 


47 


6 




2 


5 


15 


2 




3 


5 


15 


2 




4 


1 


3 


1 




5 


2 


5 


1 




Totals 


34 


100% 


13% 


4 





1 


5 


1 




1 


5 


26 


2 




2 


6 


32 


2 




3 


7 


37 


2 




4 













5 













Totals 


19 


100% 


7% 


5 
















1 


5 


31 


2 




2 


7 


44 


2 




3 


4 


25 


2 




4 













5 













Totals 


16 


100% 


6% 


6 
















1 


6 


38 


2 




2 


6 


38 


2 




3 


4 


25 


2 




4 













5 













Totals 


16 


101% 


6% 


7 
















1 


14 


48 


5 




2 


9 


31 


3 




3 


4 


14 


2 




4 


1 


3 


1 




5 


1 


3 


1 




Totals 


29 


99% 


11% 


8 
















1 


3 


11 


1 




2 


8 


29 


3 




3 


17 


60 


7 




4 













5 













Totals 


28 


100% 


11% 


9 





2 


8 


1 




] 


4 


15 


2 




2 


5 


19 


2 




3 


13 


50 


5 




4 


2 


8 


1 




5 













Totals 


26 


100% 


10% 


10 





2 


7 


1 




1 


6 


20 


2 




2 


9 


30 


3 




3 


9 


30 


3 




4 


2 


7 


1 




5 


2 


7 


1 




Totals 


30 


101% 


12% 


11 





1 


13 


1 




1 


3 


37 


1 




2 


1 


13 


1 




3 


2 


25 


1 




4 













5 


1 


13 


1 




Totals 


8 


101% 


4% 



Total No 
Lots Ass 



of 
igned 260 



1. Percentages are rounded to nearest whole percent. 

2. The total no. of lots receiving an assessment (260) 
is not equal to the total no. of known historic 
structures (215) . This is due to the somewhat 
differing field techniques of the researchers, 
McCroskey and Sprague. 



D-3 



A table of lot samples was used to help set up a sampling 
system which would provide balance (again, note that the sample 
was skewed towards areas thought to represent lower evaluation 
ratings). The results were as shown in Table D-2 below: 

TABLE D-2 



Block 

No. 


Total of Assigned 
Lots in Block 


Total of 
Blocks Tested 


Percent 
Tested 


1 


37 


4 


11 


2 


17 


3 


18 


3 


34 


3 


9 


4 


19 


3 


16 


5 


16 


2 


13 


6 


16 


3 


19 


7 


29 


3 


10 


8 


28 


3 


11 


9 


26 


3 


12 


10 


30 


3 


10 


*11 


8 








Grand 
Total 


260 


30 


12 



*Block 11 was eliminated because either there were standing 
buildings on the lots or there was no example of the proper 
category of evaluation. 



D-4 



Testing of evaluations by number is shown in Table D-3: 

TABLE D-3 
TABLE OF EVALUATION NUMBERS TESTED 



Evaluation 
No. 


Sum of Lots 

Tested 


Percent of 
Totals 





5 


31% (16) 


1 


7 


9% (75) 


2 


7 


10% (73) 


3 


7 


9% (81) 


4 


4 


44% ( 9) 


5 


* 


* ( 6) 



Total Number of Lots Assigned = (260) 



^Evaluation Number 5 was eliminated from 
testing as it represents lots not adequately- 
inspected. 

The test excavations were three-square-feet test pits excavated 

as deep as the cultural material extended. Test excavation resulted 

in at least six changes of the original evaluation code numbers. 

Of the 30 total archaeological tests, that represents a change in 

twenty percent of the evaluations. The sum of six changes was the 

result of having to raise four (66 percent) evaluation numbers and 

lowering two (33 percent) . 



D-5 



GLOSSARY 

Aesthetics - Dealing with the nature of the beautiful and with 
judgements concerning beauty. 
Archaeological Potential - Areas where there is an expressed 
possibility of cultural remains of past human life and 
activities. 

Artifact - Any object made, modified, or used by man. 

Building - A structure created to shelter any form of human 
activity, i.e., house, barn, church, hotel, etc. 

Cultural Resource - Those non-renewable, fragile, and finite 
remains of human activity, occupation, and endeavor as 
reflected in districts, sites, structures, artifacts, 
objects, ruins, works of art, and architecture or documentation. 

Historic District - A district is a geographically definable area, 
urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, link- 
age, or continuity of sites, buildings, structures, or objects 
united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical 
development. 

Historic Archaeology - Investigation of historic sites through 
archaeological techniques is called historical archaeology; 
the study of the material culture of people living during the 
period of recorded history in order that the cultural history 
and behavior of these people can be more fully understood. 



G-l 



Mill Site Patent - A deed (patent) or conveyance from the United 
States to the owners (claimants) of a tract of non-mineral 
land of five acres or less, claimed under the 1872 Mining Law 
from the public domain and utilized at the time of application 
for milling of ore from a mine or mines or for other purposes 
closely related to the operation of a mine or mill. After 
issuance of patent (fee title) all restrictions of the mining 
laws regarding use are removed. 

National Register of Historic Sites - A register of districts, sites, 
buildings, structures, and objects, significant in American 
history, architecture, archaeology, and culture, maintained 
by the Secretary of the Interior. 

Paleontological Resource - Cultural values dealing with the life, 
ancient forms and condition of past geological conditions as 
known from fossil remains. 

Patented Mining Claim - A tract of land claimed from the public 
domain for lode or placer mining purposes and by virtue of 
full compliance with the Mining Law of 1872 has been deeded 
in full fee title by the United States to the owners 
(claimants) of record at the time of application for mineral 
patent. 

Prehistoric Archaeology - All physical evidence of past human life 
or activities that represent aspects of a time prior to the 
written history of an area. 

Preservation - The process of sustaining the form and extent of a 
structure essentially as it now exists. Preservation aims 



G-2 



at halting further deterioration and providing structural 
stability but does not contemplate significant rebuilding. 

Restoration - The process of accurately recovering the form and 
details of a property as it appeared at a particular period 
of time by removing later work and by replacing missing 
original work. 

Reconstruction - The process of reproducing by new construction the 
exact form and detail of a vanished structure, or part thereof, 
as it appeared at a specific period of time. Reconstruction 
should be undertaken only when the property to be reconstructed 
is essential for understanding and interpreting the value of a 
historic district and sufficient documentation exists to insure 
an exact reproduction of the original. 

Rehabilitation - The process of returning a property to a state of 
utility, through repair or alteration, which makes possible an 
efficient contemporary use. In rehabilitation, those portions 
of the property important in illustrating historic, architectural, 
and cultural values are preserved or restored. 

Sensitive Animals - Animals classified by the BLM and Idaho Fish 
and Game Department are those: 

not yet officially listed but which are undergoing a status 
review or are proposed for listing according to Federal Register 
notices published by the Secretary of the Interior or the 
Secretary of Commerce, or according to comparable State docu- 
ments published by State officials; 



G-3 



— whose populations are consistently small and widely dis- 
persed, or whose ranges are restricted to a few localities, 
such that any appreciable reduction in numbers, habitat 
availability, or habitat condition might lead toward 
extinction; and 

— whose numbers are declining so rapidly that official list- 
ing may become necessary as a conservation measure. Declines 
may be the cause of one or more of several factors including: 
destruction, modification, or curtailment of the species' 
habitat or range; overutilization for commercial, sporting, 
scientific, or educational purposes; disease or predation; 

the inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; and/or other 
natural or manmade factors adversely affecting the species' 
continued existence. 

Site - A physical location where human activities or events trans- 
pired. The location of an event, activity, building, structure, 
or object. 

Stabilization - A protection technique usually applied to structures 
or ruins to keep them in their existing condition and to prevent 
further deterioration. 

Structure - A work constructed by man. 

Surface Estate - A property limited to use and occupancy of the 

surface and appropriation of surface resources such as timber, 
grass, and crops. Does not include the right to the subsurface 
mineral estate. 



G-4 



v isual Resource - The land, water, vegetation, animals, and other 
features that are visible on all public lands. 

Withdrawal - The removal of public (Federal) lands or resources from 
the operation of one or more forms of appropriation for private 
use or development. Requests for withdrawal may be filed with 
the Bureau of Land Management by any agency of the U. S. having 
authorization or responsibility to utilize (or set aside) lands 
for programs which come under their jurisdiction (such as re- 
clamation projects, power projects, bombing ranges, etc.). 
Withdrawals have formerly been made by a blanket executive order 
of the President under implied powers but since the passage 
of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act in 1976 must be 
done under that Act. In the case at hand the BLM filed the 
withdrawal application so as to protect the historical values 
of Silver City and adjacent area from possible damages from 
uncontrolled mining operations which could take place on newly 
located claims, were the area left open to the operation of 
the Mining Law of 1872. Rights steming from mining claims 
located prior to the date the proposed withdrawal was filed 
in the Land Records Office would not be affected. 



G-5 



REFERENCES 



Adams, Mildretta. 1969 Historic Silver City . Schwartz Publishing 
Co. Nampa, Idaho. 

Board of Owyhee County Commissioners. August 1975. Silver City 
Zoning Ordinance . Murphy , Idaho . 

Federal Register. July 1, 1977. Threatened or Endangered Fauna 
or Flora . Vol. 40. 

Federal Register. June 16, 1976. Endangered and Threatened 
Species - Plants . Part IV. 

Federal Register. September 30, 1976. Revised List of Endangered 
and Threatened Wildlife . 

Federal Register. February, 1977. National Register of Historic 
Places . Part II. 

Frisbee, John L. , III. May 26, 1977. A Letter, San Francisco, 
California. 

Gates, Paul W. , 1968. Histor y of Public Land Law Development , 
Public Land Law Review Commission, Washington, D.C., 
November, U.S. Government Printing Office. 

Green, Tom. 1977. Personal Communication, State Archaeologist. 
Boise, Idaho. 

Hanley, M. and E. Lucia, 1973. Owyhee Trails: The West's 

Forgotten Corner , The Caxton Printers, Ltd. Caldwell, Idaho. 

Hart, Arthur, Director 1973, Idaho State Historical Society, 
Boise, Idaho, Personal Communication. 

Hoagland, Roy Mrs. September 7, 1977 Interview. Owyhee County 
Employee, Murphy, Idaho. 

Hyslop, Julie, December 13, 1976. Report to Owyhee Joint Planning 
Commission from County Preservation Officer. Murphy, Idaho. 

Hyslop, Julie, August, 1977. Personal Communication, Owyhee County 
Preservation Officer, Director of the Owyhee County Museum. 

Hyslop, Julie, October 12, 1977. Personal Communication, Boise, 
Idaho. 



R-l 



Hyslop, Julie. September 15, 1977. Comments on the County Historic 
Zoning Ordinance. Murphy, Idaho. 

Idaho State Department of Water Resources and Boise State 

University, 1976, Population and Employment Forecast - State 
of Idaho Baseline Projections 1975-2000 . Boise, Idaho. 

Idaho State Water Resources Board. 1972. Comprehensive Rural Water 
and Sewage Plan . Owyhee County, Idaho. 

Idaho State Historical Society, 1970. Idaho State Historic 
Preservation Plan and Sites Survey . Draft, Idaho State 
Historical Society, Boise. 

Idaho State Historical Society, 1974. State Historical Preserva- 
tion Plan: Idaho , Idaho State Historical Society, Boise. 

Idaho State Department of Health and Welfare. August 24, 1977. A 
letter from William H. Clark of the Division of Environment. 
Boise, Idaho. 

Jayo, Barbara. July 28, 1977. Clerk of District Court, Auditor and 
Recorder, Owyhee County, Idaho. Personal Communication. 

Johnson, Lonnie C. 1975. An Historic Conservation Program: 

Silver City, Idaho , Architectural Thesis, University of 
Idaho, Moscow. 

Minot, George, Esq., Editor, 1851. Statutes at Large and Treaties 
of the United States of America from December 1, 1845, to 
March 3, 1851 , Little and Brown, Boston. 

McCroskey, William B. 1977. An Architectural Survey of Silver 
City, Owyhee County, Idaho. 

Orton, Clarence. September 6, 1977. Interview President, Silver 
City Taxpayers Association. Boise, Idaho. 

Orton, Clarence. August 24, 1977. Interview, Boise, Idaho. 

Owyhee County, 1974. Comprehensive Land Use Plan , Owyhee 
County Planning Commission. 

Southwest District Health Department. September 6, 1977. A Letter. 
Caldwell, Idaho. 

Sprague, Roderick. 1977. Historical Archaeological Testing at 
Silver City, Idaho. 

State of Idaho, 1977. Idaho Image, June- July issue. 



R-2 



U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1976. Provisional Estimates for the 
State of Idaho, CH2M Corporation . 1973. Letter. September 
13. Boise, Idaho. 

U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Land Management. 1976. 
Social - Economic Profile Southwest Idaho, Region III . Boise 
District, Idaho. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 1962. 
Historical Highlights of Public Land Management . U.S. 
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 
September 13, 1973. Mineral Report for the Proposed 
Withdrawal Silver City, Idaho and Vicinity. Boise, Idaho. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. January, 
1978. A letter from Acting Chief, Historical Architect. 
Washington, D.C. 

U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service. 1967. 
Prospector, Cowhand, and Sodbuster , Vol XI. The National 
Survey of the Sites and Buildings. Washington, D.C. 

Vincent, Kirk R. , Lauretta Burman, Michael W. Crim, Richard A. 
Hefner, E. Hunt, Her shall L. Johnson, Prent Kallenberger , 
Richard A. Link, Mark A. Longstroth, Gale Masters, Lura J. 
Morgan, Dale M. Reynolds, Anne E. Zelinshy. November 1976. 
DeLamar Baseline Study . A Boise State University study funded 
by National Science Foundation Student-Originated Studies 
Grant No. SMI 76-08165. 

Wells, Dr. Merle, September 2, 1971. National Register of 

Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form for Silver 
City Historic District. 

Wells, Dr. Merle, August 1977. Personal Communication. Idaho 
State Historical Preservation Officer. 



R-3 



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